The invention relates to a centrifuge provided with a blood bag
system having an upper and lower outlet for separation of blood
constituents, containing a rotor which can be driven in a rotative
manner about a hub, wherein at least one conventional whole blood
bag equipped with an upper outlet and with a lower outlet can be
positioned vertically in this blood bag, while the whole blood bag
can be arranged on the rotor in such a way that one outlet of the
whole blood bag is bent in a radial direction, and the opposite
outlet of the whole blood bag is bent in the other radial direction,
so that the entire whole blood bag and the outlets thereof adopt
an approximately Z- or S-shaped form in its functional position.
In this case it is preferred that the upper outlet of the whole
blood bag lie radially toward the interior and the lower outlet
of the whole blood bag lie radially toward the exterior of the whole
blood bag. The whole blood bag is held in an insert, and the insert
is in its turn held by an approximately sector-shaped cartridge,
wherein a plurality of such cartridges is uniformly distributed
by being arranged around the circumference of the rotor. One advantage
of the centrifuge is that conventional blood bags can be used and
recovery of individual blood constituents (plasma, erythrocytes,
buffycoat) can be achieved with a significantly higher degree of
efficiency and functionality, and with a high degree of purity.
What is claimed is:
1. A blood bag system for separation of blood constituents when
positioned and centrifuged within a centrifuge with a central hub,
comprising at least one cartridge that holds a blood within said
centrifuge, said cartridge arranging said blood bag to provide an
upper outlet and a lower outlet for the blood such that one of said
upper and lower outlets is bent in a first radial direction away
from said central hub, and the other of said upper and lower outlets
is bent in a direction opposite said first radial direction.
2. The blood bag system according to claim 1 wherein said blood
bag is arranged vertically within said centrifuge, and said upper
outlet lies radially inward toward said central hub when said cartridge
is positioned within said centrifuge, and said lower outlet lies
radially outward toward au exterior of said centrifuge when said
blood bag system is positioned within said centrifuge.
3. The blood bag system according to claim 2 wherein said upper
outlet is situated to enable withdrawal of plasma from said blood
bag and said lower outlet is situated to enable withdrawal of erythrocytes
from said blood bag.
4. The blood bag system according claim 2 wherein said blood bag
is positioned vertically within said blood bag system such that
a central axis is defined along a longitudinal center of said blood
bag towards which a buffycoat is formed when said blood bag system
is centrifuged, and wherein said outlets are situated in such a
way so that they are offset from said central axis thereby causing
said buffycoat to remain substantially in said blood bag when said
outlets are opened and said blood constituents are separated therefrom.
5. The blood bag system according to claim 1 further comprising
an insert in which said blood bag is positioned within said cartridge.
6. The blood bag system according to claim 5 wherein said cartridge
is attachable to said centrifuge, and wherein said insert is positioned
within said cartridge.
7. The blood bag system according to claim 6 further comprising
a plurality of cartridges attachable to said centrifuge.
8. The blood bag system according to claim 7 wherein said cartridge
has an approximately sector shape such that a plurality of said
cartridges may be distributed approximately uniformly within the
9. The blood bag system according to claim 6 wherein said cartridge
is configured to detachably connect to the centrifuge, and wherein
said insert detachably connects to said cartridge.
10. The blood bag system according to claim 9 further comprising
retaining means for detachably connecting said cartridge to the
11. The blood bag system according to claim 6 wherein said cartridge
further comprises a cover selected from one of translucent and transparent.
12. The blood bag system according to claim 1 further comprising
at least one erythrocyte bag and at least one plasma bag inserted
within said blood bag system.
13. The blood bag system according to claim 12 further comprising
an insert positioned within said blood bag system, wherein said
erythrocyte bag and said plasma bag are positioned within said insert.
14. The blood bag system according to claim 13 wherein said insert
further comprises separate chambers and wherein said erythrocyte
bag and said plasma bag are inserted within said chambers.
15. The blood bag system according to claim 6 wherein said blood
bag is positioned vertically within said such that a central axis
is defined in a vertical central axis of said blood bag towards
which a buffycoat is formed and away from which said blood constituents
are formed when said blood bag system is centrifuged, and further
comprising clamps positioned respectively adjacent to said outlets
on said insert and configured to open and close said outlets for
enabling and disabling transfer of said blood constituents from
said blood bag into said plasma and erythrocyte bags respectively.
16. The blood bag system according to claim 15 further comprising
a spring attached to each of said clamps and means for controlling
said clamps, wherein pressure from said spring causes said clamps
to close and wherein said means for controlling said clamps causes
said clamps to become open or closed during operation of said centrifuge.
17. The blood bag system according to claim 15 further comprising
a sensor that activates and deactivates said clamps.
18. The blood bag system according to claim 17 wherein said sensor
includes means for determining the amount of said buffycoat within
said blood bag.
19. The blood bag system according to claim 18 wherein said blood
bag has an upper region, and wherein said means for determining
the amount of said buffycoat within said blood bag includes means
for measuring at least one of a width and a color of said buffycoat
at said upper region of said blood bag.
20. The blood bag system according to claim 17 wherein said sensor
is constructed to move radially with respect to said centrifuge.
21. The blood bag system according to claim 15 wherein said clamps
are disposed in said cartridge.
22. The blood bag system according to claim 1 further comprising
means for providing at least one of energy and compressed gas to
23. The blood bag system according to claim 1 further comprising
welding means for welding said blood, plasma and erythrocyte bags
such that they are hermetically sealed.
24. The blood bag system according to claim 1 further comprising
a pressure module disposed radially inward from said cartridge and
configured to exert pressure on said blood bag in a radially outward
direction with respect to said centrifuge, thereby impacting said
blood bag with said pressure.
25. The blood bag system according to claim 24 wherein said pressure
module comprises a cushion inflatable with compressed gas and a
pressure slide adjacent to said blood bag to exert said pressure
onto said blood bag when said cushion is inflated with compressed
26. A centrifuge for separation of blood constituents, comprising
a. a rotor and a central hub, wherein said rotor includes a periphery;
and b. a blood bag system situated within said rotor, said blood
bag system arranging a blood bag to provide with an upper outlet
and a lower outlet such that one of said upper and lower outlets
is bent in a first radial direction and the other of said upper
and lower outlets is bent in a direction opposite said first radial
27. The blood bag system according claim 26 wherein said blood
bag is positioned vertically within said blood bag system such that
a central axis is defined along a vertical central axis of said
blood bag towards which a buffycoat is formed when said blood bag
system is centrifuged, and wherein said outlets are bent in such
a way so that they am offset from said central axis thereby causing
said buffycoat to remain substantially in said blood bag when said
outlets are opened and said blood constituents are separated therefrom.
28. The centrifuge according to claim 26 wherein said blood bag
system comprises a cartridge attached to said centrifuge.
29. The centrifuge according to claim 28 further comprising a
plurality of said cartridges attached to said centrifuge.
30. The centrifuge according to claim 29 wherein said plurality
of cartridges each have an approximately sector shape such that
said plurality of cartridges may be distributed approximately uniformly
around said centrifuge.
31. The centrifuge according to claim 28 wherein said rotor comprises
retaining means for detachably connecting said cartridge to said
32. The centrifuge according to claim 26 further comprising means
for providing at least one of energy and compressed gas to said
blood bag system.
33. The centrifuge according to claim 26 wherein said means for
providing at least one of energy and compressed gas to said blood
bag system is located on said hub.
34. The centrifuge according to claim 26 further comprising a
pressure module disposed radially inward from said blood bag system
and configured to exert pressure on said blood bag in the radially
outward direction with respect to said centrifuge, thereby impacting
said blood bag with said pressure.
35. The centrifuge according to claim 34 wherein said pressure
module comprises a cushion inflatable with compressed gas and a
pressure slide adjacent to said blood bag to exert said pressure
onto said blood bag when said cushion is inflated with compressed
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
1. Field of the Invention
The invention relates to a centrifuge comprising a blood bag system
with an upper and lower outlet for separation of blood constituents.
2. Description of Related Art
EP 0 026 417 B1 filed by the same applicant, discloses a centrifuge
comprising a blood bag system, in which the blood bag is provided
only with an upper outlet. One disadvantage of this is that recovery
of plasma is difficult. In addition, that application involves a
swing-out hanger attachment in which the phase boundaries between
the individual constituents are formed at a vertical level during
the operation of the centrifuge.
EP 0 359 495 B1 on the other hand describes a vertical blood bag
system. This vertical system, however, has again the disadvantage
that the separation of the constituents is difficult because the
extraction is achieved from the middle of a blood bag that is provided
with an upper and a lower connection line. This necessitates the
insertion of a special blood bag which is thus more expensive to
manufacture, and which can moreover be easily burst open. Therefore,
upper and the lower connections of the blood bag are not used for
delivery of the recovered constituents while the centrifuge is in
operation, but instead only a custom-made outlet manufactured in
the middle is used.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
One objective of this invention is therefore to further develop
a centrifuge having a vertical blood bag system according to EP
0 350 495 B1 in such a way, so that blood bags that are normally
commercially available could be utilized, without necessitating
special adjustments of the bag. Another objective of the invention
is to achieve recovery of the individual constituents with a substantially
higher level of efficiency, functionality and with a higher degree
An essential characteristic of the invention is that a whole blood
bag is used with upper and lower outlets, which are arranged in
the existing embodiment in the rotor, and that one outlet, for example
the upper outlet of this whole blood bag, is bent in a radial direction
while the opposite outlet of the blood bag is bent in the other
radial direction, so that the whole blood bag adopts in its functioning
position comprising its outlets approximately a Z- or S-shape form.
In comparison to prior art, this results in a substantial advantage,
namely that a blood bag that is freely commercially available can
be used with an upper and a lower outlet, without necessitating
the use of a special connection on this blood bag.
It has been in fact proven that with this Z- or S-shaped arrangement
of a blood bag which is positioned vertically in the rotor of the
centrifuge it is now possible for the first time to use in a clean
manner for example the upper outlet, which is directed in the inward
radial direction, for recovery of plasma that is being formed on
this inward, radial level, while the outlet located opposite in
the radially outward direction can be used for recovery of erythrocytes
which are also located in the interface of this phase. This results
in yet another advantage because the so-called "buffycoat",
which is in fact undesirable, can stay in the whole blood bag and
it will not be mixed with other constituents.
There are a number of other known inventions according to existing
technology, wherein the buffycoat must be transferred to another
bag in order to achieve a clean separation between the erythrocytes
and the plasma, which is avoided by the invention.
The invention ensures that the undesirable buffycoat will remain
in the whole blood bag itself and that the blood bag is a commercially
available blood bag, such that it has upper and lower connection
lines, which are henceforth used in accordance with the invention,
because of the special shaping form of the blood bag in the centrifuge
designed to extract the individual constituents which are being
formed during the operation of the centrifuge.
In general, it should be pointed out that the blood bag, which
is formed in the Z- or S-shape form could be stored during the operation
of the centrifuge in the rotor in any desired holder. This means
that any desired holder can be used, which is capable of holding
the blood bag in the Z or S form, in which bag for example the upper
connection line will be formed radially inward, while the lower
connection is formed radially outward.
In accordance with this invention, a system having a plurality
of chambers is preferred, in which the formed blood bag is held
in an insert, while the insert itself is held in a cartridge. The
use of this insert and cartridge system has a number of advantages.
A first advantage is that an insert having a relatively simple
construction can be used, in which one chamber of the whole blood
bag is suspended in the above described Z- or S-form and the connections
to the Z- or S-configuration are arranged so that yet another chamber
is deployed in this insert enabling to suspend therein a bag serving
for recovery of erythrocytes, while another chamber is provided
for a bag for recovery of plasma.
Furthermore, it is sufficient when this insert is simply provided
with correspondingly guided clamps, wherein these clamps open in
a certain centrifuge stage and the transfer of the constituents
produced in the blood is thus enabled in individual satellite bag.
These clamps are preferably guided manually when the objective
is to put the entire system into the insert during the standstill
status, because these clamps will then produce a clamp connection
when the small tube is operated by hand in order to disconnect the
corresponding supply and outlet tubes.
During the operation of the centrifuge, these clamps are closed
as they are spring-loaded and they will be open only at a predetermined
stage of the process by a separately controlled force. This force
has an effect only for a certain time period, which is controlled
by sensors in order to guarantee that the formed constituents will
be transferred fully and practically without a residue into the
satellite bags. It is possible to use a lifting cylinder as a remote
force means controlling the clamps, or an electromagnet, a rotary
slide, or other actuation elements that can be remotely operated
can be employed. It is also important in this connection that the
insert be equipped with the construction of the three chambers using
the above described clamped in as simple and inexpensive manner
The actual controlling elements, which control the clamps are in
this case arranged in a cartridge, whereby this cartridge is constructed
in the form of sectors so that a plurality of the cartridges can
be evenly distributed on the circumference of the rotor. These cartridges
are provided with power connections through the hub of the rotor.
Each cartridge is equipped with a plug connection, and a corresponding
opposite plug is arranged on the hub of the rotor, so that the required
signal lines and air supply lines can be fed via these plug connections
between the hub of the rotor and the cartridges. It is obviously
also possible to use instead of a continuous plug connection for
the supply of energy and air also two separate plug connections
per cartridge, wherein air is supplied to one of the plug connections
and electric energy is supplied to the other plug connection.
Signal lines are simply connected to a sensor, which monitors the
transfer of the plasma into the satellite bags and controls the
associated clamp, when the sensor detects a coloring caused by another
type of constituents in the transfer line. The same clamp is arranged
in the extraction line for recovery of erythrocytes. The same clamp
can be also actuated manually during the standstill status, and
can be also controlled by a remotely controlled actuation element
while the centrifuge is in operation. It is therefore important
in this respect that the cartridges, which contain the actuation
element for the inserts resting therein, are screwed in the rotor
relatively tightly, thus forming the machine and actuation part
of the insert so that the insert can be formed in as simple manner
When a similar type of insert is damaged, such an insert can be
very easily replaced, even if such an occurrence is caused for example
by an unnoticed defect of one or more bags during the operation
of the centrifuge. Moreover, the design provides that the cartridges,
which accommodate the inserts, can be closed with a transparent
cover and that this cover can be locked. This results specifically
in the following advantage: passing of the plasma from the whole
blood bag into the adjacent whole plasma bag can be observed very
easily by means of a stroboscope during the operation of the centrifuge
from the upper part through a rotor cover, which is also transparent,
in order to control in this manner the function of the sensor which
monitors the transfer of the plasma.
This stroboscope is controlled by the number of rotations depending
on the number of the rotations of the rotor. In addition to the
above described remotely controllable clamps, the design is also
provided with a built-in welding apparatus which ensures that the
associated pipe lines or the supply tubes will be separated and
welded together once the plasma bag and the erythrocyte bag have
been fully filled up. In this manner it is thus possible to achieve
a fully automatic recovery of plasma and erythrocytes.
Another advantage in comparison to existing art is that because
the upright arrangement of the whole blood bag and because of the
capability to use a conventional whole blood bag having an upper
and a lower connection line, the ability to recover extra pure plasma
is now provided for the first time, because due to the Z-shaped
deformation of the whole blood bag in the centrifuge chamber of
the centrifuge, one outlet of the whole blood bag is directed radially
inward and thus brings the constituents produced radially inward
into the blood bag for withdrawal, while on the other hand, the
radially outward directed connection on the blood bag is deformed
in the outward direction in such a way that only this blood bag
will now be determined and suitable for withdrawal of the constituents
which are formed in the radially outward direction.
It is also essential for the present invention that a radially
enclosed compressed air module be deployed, which can be operated
for example with a cushion that can be inflated by compressed air.
This compressed air module is operated with a pressure slide, which
can be moved in a radial direction from within and in the outward
direction against the blood bag. This means that the blood bag will
be affected by the pressure slide radially inward as it is positioned
radially outward in an associated separation wall in the insert.
The blood bag deployed in this manner under pressure removes the
plasma through the supply tube and through an open valve (clamp)
into the adjacent satellite bag in which the plasma will be contained.
Accordingly, after the withdrawal of the plasma constituents, the
upper valve is closed again and thereafter, the lower valve for
the withdrawal of erythrocytes is open and due to the consequent
action of this pressure shield, the erythrocyte constituents will
be also extracted when the clamp is open into the associated erythrocyte
It has been established through experiments that the action of
the pressure shield is not necessarily required during the withdrawal
of the erythrocyte component, it may be sufficient when the effect
of the centrifugal force alone is employed to enable the withdrawal
of the erythrocyte constituents from the whole blood bag into the
The following is a more detailed explanation of the invention based
on the drawings, which serve solely for a representation of an embodiment
solution. Further characteristics and advantages of the invention
will become evident from the drawings and their description
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
For a more complete understanding of this invention, reference
is now made to the following detailed description of the embodiments
as illustrated in the accompanying drawings, wherein:
FIG. 1 is a perspective top view of a rotor provided with a single
cartridge attached therein;
FIG. 2 is the same representation as in FIG. 1 provided with a
plurality of cartridges attached therein, wherein one cartridge
space is left free for facility of inspection;
FIG. 3 is a cartridge according to FIGS. 1 and 2 shown in a perspective
FIG. 4 is the cartridge according FIG. 3 including a representation
of further details;
FIG. 5 is an insert to be used in the cartridge seen from the bottom
FIG. 6 is the insert according to FIG. 5 seen from the side of
FIG. 7 is the insert according to FIG. 6 seen from the outside
and from above; [page 9]
FIG. 8 is the insert according to FIG. 7 seen from directly above;
FIG. 9 is a schematic cross sectional view of a cartridge having
an insert built therein;
FIG. 10 is a cross sectional view of an arrangement according to
FIG. 9 including a representation of further details;
FIG. 11 is a schematic view of the position of the blood bag during
the operation of the centrifuge; and
FIG. 12 is a modified embodiment with respect to FIG. 11.
The invention is described in the following description with reference
to the figures, in which like numbers represent the same or similar
In accordance with FIG. 1 a hub 2 which is arranged in a rotor
1 is provided with a plurality of plug connections 3 8. Through
one of these plug connections can be supplied for instance energy
for each of the cartridges 5 held therein, while air supplying operations
can be conducted via the other plug connections 8. It is, however,
also possible for example not to employ the plug connection 8 and
supply air and electric energy only through the plug connections
A plurality of cartridges 5 is arranged uniformly in the interior
space 4 of the rotor, wherein these cartridges can be built-in between
retaining pins 6 in a detachable manner on the circumference of
the rotor. In another embodiment form, the cartridges 5 can be connected
with the rotor in a fixed manner. Corresponding bores 7 are provided
for this purpose in the base of the rotor so that screws passing
through these bores connect the base with each of the cartridges
FIGS. 3 and 4 show such a cartridge 5 in more detail. The cartridge
is comprised essentially of an outer wall 71 which is employed in
a force-locking and form-locking manner on the inner wall of the
rotor 1 as well as with a rear part 15 arranged opposite the outer
wall 71 that is directed radially toward the hub. On the bottom
side of the rear part 15 is arranged the above-mentioned matching
plug which interacts with the plug connections 3 8. The cartridge
5 can be therefore inserted into the rotor from above and the matching
plug arranged at bottom part of the real part 15 will then be locked
together with the plug connections 3 8.
The rear part 15 is connected to the rear wall 17 of the cartridge
5 with screws 16. The cover 9 of the cartridge 5 has a transparent
design and it supports on its front side (directed radially outward)
a closing lid 10 which supports a locking bar 12 thus held in
a rotational axis 11 that can be locked with the associated locking
pin 13. The swivel hinge 14 of the cover 9 is arranged on the rear
FIG. 4 also shows that an insert 25 is inserted into the cassette
5 wherein the guide is provided between the cassette 5 and the
insert 25 in such a way, so that the insert can be inserted loose
and with a clearance for free motion into the cassette. After the
actuation elements have been arranged into the rear part 15 of the
cartridge as described above, a contrasting arrangement of the actuation
elements with respect to the associated surface on insert 25 is
thus created as will be explained in more detail later.
It should be further explained with reference to FIG. 3 that the
cartridge supports a guide bush 20 in the cover 9 in which is arranged
a sensor 21 which is movable in the directions of the arrow 22.
The sensor is moved in this case through a shaft 19 which is constructed
as spindle and is connected so as to withstand rotations with an
adjusting wheel 18. The position of the sensor 21 can therefore
be adjusted in this manner continuously in the radial direction.
In accordance with FIG. 4 the insert 25 is provided with three
chambers 23 24 26 which are separated from each other by separating
partitions. The chamber 23 serves for accommodation of the whole
blood bag 31 while the chamber 24 serves for accommodation of the
plasma bag 45 and the chamber 26 serves for accommodation of the
The adapter plate 27 indicated in the figure shows the tube guiding
channels, which will be also described later, and it also provides
mounting supports for suspension of the whole blood bag 31 having
the form of pins. This adapter plate 27 is preferable held in the
insert 25 in a detachable manner.
FIG. 5 shows one type of the insert 25 from the bottom side. In
this case one can see that the whole blood bag 31 is suspended above,
namely in the adapter plate 27 while its lower outlet having the
form of a tube 43 is guided between one of the clamping devices.
The whole blood bag 31 is also suspended with its lower connecting
edge on pings 42 which are arranged in the insert 25. The other
chambers 24 26 of the insert 25 are sealed with corresponding bottoms
33 34 and closed in the downward direction.
The clamping device arranged on the bottom side is comprised essentially
of a manual actuator (hand wheel) 30 which is connected via a shaft
or axis with one of the clamps 40 that are slidable in the lengthwise
guide hole 41 wherein the hand wheel 30 is initially energized
with one of the locking springs, not shown in the figure, in the
locking position, so that the clamp 40 holds the tube 43 constantly
in a tube guiding channel 29.
Only when a ram deployed in the rear part 15 of the cartridge 5
in the form of a hub cylinder exerts an effect on the manual control
30 the clamp 40 will be moved into the opening position and through
flow in the tube will thus be enabled in the tube guiding channel
29. The entire layout is thus arranged in the bottom side 28 of
this insert 25 and one can moreover also recognize that on the
opposite side of the whole blood bag 31 the adapter plate 27 is
also equipped with a corresponding clamp that can be actuated manually,
which is comprised also in this case of a manual control 35 that
is held spring-loaded in the locking position, wherein the manual
control 35 is held at the free movable end with a counterpoise 36
which can be moved around a rotation axis 37.
FIGS. 6 and 7 show other details in the head region of the insert
25. One can see in these figures that the tube 43 is led from the
bottom region of the whole blood bag 31 upward through a tube-guiding
channel 29 in the direction of the arrow 32 and enters a tube channel
50 which is arranged in the region of the tube guide 45a. This
tube guide 45a is constructed so that it is adjustable in the radial
direction and so as to be detectable. A guiding screw 47 thus provides
clamping through an oblong hole 46 and can thus be adjusted in this
oblong hole. Overflow of the tube 43 in the radial direction can
therefore be adjusted with the radial adjustment of the tube guide.
In this manner is also determined how much of the erythrocytes should
still remain in the buffycoat. The tube 43 thus creates a connection
between the whole blood bag 31 and the erythrocyte bag 44 which
is specified for recovery of erythrocytes.
In addition, one can also see from FIG. 6 how a tube 53 which is
used for recovery of plasma protrudes from the head region of the
whole blood bag 31 is bent inward therein in the radial direction
and leads over the adapter plate 27 through the intermediary of
the clamps 35 36 38 into the plasma bag 45 in the chamber 24 which
serves for recovery of plasma. The clamp which serves for closing
of the tube 53 that can be remotely operated as well as manually
operated for recovery of plasma is clearly recognizable in FIG.
8 and it is comprised essentially of a clamp 38 tensioned via a
spring in the closing position, which is employed at a fixed pin
(stop pin 68). The clamp is thus constantly spring-loaded in the
closing position so that the plasma tube 53 will be constantly closed.
The opening movement can be in this case initiated manually or remotely.
A counterpoise 36 is provided for manual activation. It is mounted
on a pivotable rotation axle, which lifts under the effect of actuation
force 69 the manual control 35 against the force of the spring 70
and thus opens the clamp 38. Instead of manual activation, which
is performed only during the standstill state of the centrifuge,
remote control is achieved during the operation of the centrifuge
with an actuation ram of an actuation cylinder, not shown in the
figure, which is deployed in the rear part 15 of the cartridge 5
and which exerts an effect with its ram on the counterpoise in the
direction of the arrow (FIG. 6).
Also important in the representation of FIG. 6 is the fact that
the blood bag 31 is now inserted in the chamber 23 in such a way
and bent on the side of the head and on the side of the base in
such a manner that the bag will create a roughly S-shaped form when
seen in a side view as show in FIG. 9. The upper tube 53 which
serves for recovery of the plasma is deformed radially inward with
its tube connection so that it will be outside of the central axis
of the whole blood bag 31 while on the other side in the opposite
position at the end of the base of the outgoing tube 43 it is oriented
again radially outward, as well as arranged outside of the longitudinal
central axis of the whole blood bag 31. This arrangement of the
tube connections 43 53 eccentric on both sides, is achieved only
by the corresponding insertion and attachment of the whole blood
bag 31 in the chamber 23.
No modifications whatsoever are in this case required on the whole
blood bag 31 itself, which means that commercially available whole
blood bags can be employed. The advantage of this is that the constituents
suggested in FIG. 9 can be formed during the operations of the centrifuge.
Plasma 56 is formed in the whole blood bag 31 radially inward with
buffycoat 57 which is relatively sharply defined and formed in
the central region, while standing and relatively unchanged constituents
consisting of erythrocytes are formed radially outward.
It is important in this case that both the inside and outside placed
constituents 56 58 can be extracted without interference in the
direction of the arrows 73 74 outside with a corresponding time
control through the opening of the associated clamps, without influencing
them in any way or without taking with them the buffycoat 57 itself.
This constituent will therefore remain in the whole blood bag 31
and there is no need to process it with another bag, as was the
case according to prior art. This also means that there is no need
to contaminate with it another bag, which was also unavoidable with
the existing state of technology.
Only the two clamps are suggested in FIG. 9 in the head and in
the base region of the tube 43 53. These clamps can be formed as
roll tube clamps and they can be also provided with another closing
mechanism instead of the spring-loaded mechanism. It is important
in this case that clamps be maintained in the working condition
in the closing position and that they be brought into the open position
only as required for a predetermined period of time when a corresponding
signal is issued.
As one can also see from FIG. 9 the mounting of the blood bag
31 occurs in such a way that the pins 48 which are arranged on
the adapter plate 27 outside of central longitudinal axis, provide
mounting support for the whole blood bag 31. The adapter plate 27
can thus be replaced depending on the type of the used blood bag
31 so that corresponding tube guide channels and attachments with
pins 48 will accommodate the whole blood bag 31. The same principle
is applied also to the pins 42 in the bottom region 28 and the through
passages created therein, which can also fit the blood bag 31 according
the to the bag that is used.
Incidentally, it is known that the whole blood bag 31 can support
a tube stump 51 which can also be engaged in the adapter plate
27 in the area of a tube channel 49. The plasma tube 53 which is
used for recovery of the plasma, is led into a tube channel 52 in
the adapter plate 27 (FIG. 6).
FIG. 10 shows other functional parts of the arrangement, wherein
the allocation of the cartridge 5 and of the insert 25 is depicted
only by way of an example. The figure only illustrates the fact
that the entire arrangement is provided with an outer wall 54 which
is deployed radially outward on the inner wall of the rotor 1. The
figure depicts a system having a plurality of chambers. It is recognizable
that the blood bag 31 is arranged in the chamber 23 in the system.
A pressure slide 59 arranged radially inward, should be preferably
created with a vertical U-shaped profile and it is preferable convexly
curved radially outward. A compressed air connection 66 is provided
via a tube 64 wherein this compress air connection is connected
via the above described 3 plug connections 3 or 8. When the entire
pressure module 61 is inflated, a pressure force is achieved in
this manner in the direction of the arrow 76 which is acting in
the same manner as the centrifugal force 75 (FIG. 11). Therefore,
only a relatively small amount of inflating under a low pressure
is sufficient to apply the corresponding pressure to the bag 31.
As is also shown in the figure, the entire arrangement can be rotated
around the rotation axis 62 for example in the direction of the
FIG. 11 indicates in a schematic manner the extraction of the individual
constituents during the operation of the centrifuge. As one can
see from the figure, an approximately Z-shaped form of the whole
blood bag is adopted and the resulting buffycoat constituents 57
are retained in the central region of the blood bag 31 while one
of the constituents, (plasma) 56 is conducted away through the pipe
connection 53 and the other constituents, (erythrocytes) 58 are
conducted downward through the pipe connection 43.
It is important in this respect that the pipe connection 53 be
directed radially inward and that the pipe connection 43 be directed
radially outward. Because of this special Z-shaped form alone, a
conventional blood bag having an upper and a lower connection is
suitable when deployed in the vertical position for extraction of
the various constituents 56 58 as it enables withdrawal upward
FIG. 12 depicts a modified embodiment, characterized by a slanted
posture of the pressure slide 59', which is inclined in the vertical
direction by angle 77 and by a corresponding slanted posture of
the associated adjoining chamber wall 67' forming a wedge-shaped
construction of the resulting buffycoat 57 which will thus be formed
in this manner. This results in a significant advantage, namely
that when the pressure slide 59' is moved in the direction of the
arrow 76 pressure will be applied first in the lower region of
the blood bag 31 so that the buffycoat 57 will be formed further
up in a wedge-shape which is expanding in the upward direction.
As soon as the position of the buffycoat 57' is extended upward,
as shown in FIG. 12 the plasma will be in an inclined position,
which is a signal for a light sensor 21 deployed above in the cover
region to close the associated clamp 35. This circumstance should
be programmed via a corresponding microprocessor control and it
will depend upon the sensitivity and the color change to which the
light sensor is set.
In addition, the sensor can be also shifted in the radial direction
as is indicated by the arrow direction 22 in FIG. 9. The sensor
is positioned on the boundary between the constituents of the buffycoat
57 toward plasma 56 to make it possible to detect immediately a
shifting of this boundary in the direction toward the plasma tube
53 and to close the corresponding clamp 35. This among other things
also ensures that a remaining supply of plasma is retained in the
blood bag 31 to prevent in a secure manner contamination of the
plasma bag 45 by the buffycoat 57. The remaining plasma also serves
to provide nutrition for the thrombocytes.
FIG. 9 further indicates that the inset 25 too is equipped with
an inner wall 55 which forms a border of the chamber wall and which
is arranged on the other side of the pressure slider 59. In case
of FIGS. 9 and 10 it is also important that both the dead weight
71 of the pressure slide 59 and the centrifugal force 75 are directed
radially outward in the direction of the arrow 60 to make it possible
to generate a very strong force with a very low power-drive of the
pressure slide 59. FIG. 9 also shows a radially outward arranged
outer wall 72a and a radially inward arranged inner wall 72b of
the cartridge 5. The wedge shape of the buffycoat 57' is indicated
in FIG. 12 with the reference symbol 78.
The overall advantage of the above described technical version
is therefore that a clean recovery of plasma and erythrocytes is
enabled which is operationally safe and free of contaminants, wherein
the processing is conducted with commonly used and commercially
available bags. The recovery is conducted automatically and no manual
intervention is required.
It is essential in the case of the present invention that the blood
bag be inserted into the accommodating chamber in an upright standing
form, so that its connection regions on the side of the head and
on the side of the base will be positioned outside of the central
axis (when applied to an unformed blood bag suspended in a straight
line). Only this arrangement makes it possible to guarantee that
these connecting regions will no longer be within the range of the
buffycoat zone formed in the central region.
In this respect it does not matter whether the discharge region
which serves for the recovery of plasma, (in this embodiment it
is the head region of the blood bag), is located in the upper or
in the lower part. It is also possible to use a blood bag built
into the system in such a way that the connection tube used for
the recovery of plasma is located below and, conversely, the connection
tube used for the recovery of erythrocytes is located above.
It is further also essential that both connecting regions be positioned
diametrically opposite each other, that is to say that one connecting
region be deployed in the opposite direction to the other connecting
region. In this case it does not matter if for example the upper
connecting region is used for recovery of plasma in a radial line
in the direction toward the rotational axis of the centrifuge, while
the other connecting region is located diametrically opposite on
an outwardly radial line directed away from the hub of the rotor.
It is obviously also possible that these connecting regions are
not aligned exactly on a radial line, they can be also formed at
an angle to the radial line, provided that they lie diametrically
opposite each other and that they have in each case only a continuous
connection to the whole blood constituents which are being formed
on each side.
Instead of the above-described Z-shape of the blood bag it is also
possible to employ an S-shape in accordance with the present solution.
An arc-shaped removal design of the connection tubes 43 53 in front
of the blood bag 31 is allowed.
Neither is it necessary according to the present solution for the
satellite bags 44 45 to be located on the same circumference level
of the rotor 1. The bags can be also arranged on completely different
circumference levels. The same is true also about the arrangement
of the chamber for accommodation of the while blood bag. This bag
is arranged in the embodiment example radially inward in comparison
to the satellite bags 44 45 that are arranged on the same circumference
level so that they are directed radially outward therein. It is
also possible to arrange this whole blood bag 31 on a circumference
level which lies radially outward in comparison to the more radially
inwardly arranged satellite bags 44 45.
Glossary of Symbols
The following is a glossary of symbols:
1 rotor 35 32 arrow direction 52 hub 33 bottom 3 plug connection
34 bottom 4 interior space 35 manual control (clamp) 5 cartridge
36 counterpoise 6 retaining pin 40 37 rotation axis 107 bore 38
damp 8 plug connection 39 guide 9 cover 40 clamp 10 closing lid
41 guide 11 rotation axis (locking bar) 45 42 pins 15 12 locking
bar 43 tube (blood bag 31) 13 locking pin 44 bag for erythrocytes
14 swivel hinge 45 bag for plasma 15 rear part 45a tube guide 16
screw 50 46 oblong hole 20 17 rear wall 47 guiding screw 18 adjusting
wheel 48 pin 19 shaft 49 tube channel 20 guide bush 50 tube channel
21 sensor 55 52 tube stump 25 22 arrow direction 52 tube channel
23 chamber (blood bag) 53 plasma tube 24 chamber (plasma) 54 outer
wall 26 chamber (erythrocytes) 55 inner wall 56 plasma 30 27 adapter
plate 57 buffycoat 57' 28 bottom side 58 erythrocytes 29 tube guiding
channel 59 pressure slide 30 manual control 5 60 arrow direction
31 whole blood bag 61 pressure module 62 rotation axis 72a outer
wall 63 arrow direction 72b inner wall 64 tube 73 arrow direction
10 66 compressed air connection 74 arrow direction 67 separating
wall 67' 20 75 centrifugal force 68 stop pin 76 force of pressure
69 actuation force 77 angle 70 spring 78 wedge shape 15 71 dead