The invention relates to a centrifuge provided with a blood bag
system having an upper and lower outlet for separation of blood
constituents, containing a rotor which can be driven in a rotative
manner about a hub, wherein at least one conventional whole blood
bag equipped with an upper outlet and with a lower outlet can be
positioned vertically in this blood bag, while the whole blood bag
can be arranged on the rotor in such a way that one outlet of the
whole blood bag is bent in a radial direction, and the opposite
outlet of the whole blood bag is bent in the other radial direction,
so that the entire whole blood bag and the outlets thereof adopt
an approximately Z- or S-shaped form in its functional position.
In this case it is preferred that the upper outlet of the whole
blood bag lie radially toward the interior and the lower outlet
of the whole blood bag lie radially toward the exterior of the whole
blood bag. The whole blood bag is held in an insert, and the insert
is in its turn held by an approximately sector-shaped cartridge,
wherein a plurality of such cartridges is uniformly distributed
by being arranged around the circumference of the rotor. One advantage
of the centrifuge is that conventional blood bags can be used and
recovery of individual blood constituents (plasma, erythrocytes,
buffycoat) can be achieved with a significantly higher degree of
efficiency and functionality, and with a high degree of purity.
1. A centrifuge with a blood bag system (31 44 45) provided with
an upper and a lower outlet for separation of blood constituents,
containing a rotor (1) which can be driven in a rotative manner
about a hub (2), wherein at least one conventional whole blood bag
(31) provided with an upper outlet (53) and with a lower outlet
(43) can be positioned vertically in this blood bag system (31
44 45); characterized by the fact that the whole blood bag (31)
can be arranged on the rotor (1) in such a way that one outlet (43;
53) of the whole blood bag (31) is bent in a radial direction and
the opposite outlet (53; 43) of the whole blood bag (31) is bent
in the other radial direction, so that the entire whole blood bag
(31) and the outlets thereof (43; 53) adopt an approximately Z-
or S-shaped form in its functional position.
2. The centrifuge according to claim 1 characterized by the fact
that the upper outlet (53) of the whole blood bag (31) lies radially
toward the interior and the lower outlet (43) of the whole blood
bag lies radially toward the exterior of the whole blood bag.
3. The centrifuge according to claim 1 characterized by the fact
that the upper outlet (53) of the whole blood bag (31) lies radially
toward the interior and the lower outlet (43) of the whole blood
bag lies radially toward the exterior of the whole blood bag.
4. The centrifuge according to claim 1 through 3 characterized
by the fact that the upper outlet (53) of the whole blood bag (31)
is provided for the withdrawal of plasma (56) and the lower outlet
(43) of the whole blood bag (31) is provided for the withdrawal
5. The centrifuge according one of the claims 1 through 4 characterized
by the fact that the outlets (43 53) are bent in such a way so
that buffycoat (57) itself remains substantially in the whole blood
bag (31) during the draining of the other blood constituents (56
6. The centrifuge according to one of the claims 1 through 5 characterized
by the fact that the whole blood bag (31) is held in an insert (25).
7. The centrifuge according to claim 6 characterized by the fact
that the insert (25) is held in a cartridge (5) which is attached
to the rotor (1).
8. The centrifuge according to claim 7 characterized by the fact
that the a plurality of cartridges (5) is provided on/in the centrifuge.
9. The centrifuge according to claim 8 characterized by the fact
that the cartridges (5) are formed approximately in a sector shape
and arranged so that they are distributed uniformly on the circumference
of the rotor 1.
10. The centrifuge according to one of the claims 6 through 9
characterized by the fact that the cartridge (5) is arranged on
the centrifuge in a detachable manner and that the insert (25) is
arranged on the cartridge in a detachable manner.
11. The centrifuge according to one of the claims 6 through 10
characterized by the fact that the mounting support of the cartridge
(5) is provided with at least one blocking pin (6), which is deployed
in the radially outward direction on the centrifuge.
12. The centrifuge according to one of the claims 1 through 1
characterized by the fact that the centrifuge is provided with an
inner space (4) in which is deployed at least one cartridge (5).
13. The centrifuge according to one of the claims 1 through 12
characterized by the fact that the cartridge (5) is equipped with
a removable or slidable, translucent or transparent cover.
14. The centrifuge according one of the claims 1 through 13 characterized
by the fact that at least one erythrocyte bag (44) and at least
one plasma bag (45) are also provided on/in the centrifuge.
15. The centrifuge according to one of the claims 1 through 14
characterized by the fact that both other bags (44 45) can be also
retained in the insert (25).
16. The centrifuge according to claim 15 characterized by the
fact that each of the bags (31 44 45) is deployed in a separate
chamber (23 24 26).
17. The centrifuge according to one of the claims 6 through 16
characterized by the fact that the insert (25) is equipped with
correspondingly controlled clamps (38 4) which can be opened or
closed depending on the stage of the centrifuge, and that the transfer
of the constituents (56-58) produced in the whole blood bag (31)
into the individual satellite bags (31 44 45) is thus enabled
by clamping/opening of the outlets (43 53).
18. The centrifuge according to claim 17 characterized by the
fact that the clamps (38 40) keep the outlets (43 53) closed by
spring pressure and that the outlets can be controlled by a program
to become open during the operation of the centrifuge.
19. The centrifuge according to one of the claims 17 or 18 characterized
by the fact that the clamps (38 40) are activated in dependence
on a sensor (21).
20. The centrifuge according to claim 19 characterized by the
fact that the sensor (21) determines the amount of the buffycoat
21. The centrifuge according to claim 20 characterized by the
fact that the sensor (21) determines the amount of the buffycoat
based on the width and/or coloring of the buffycoat layer in the
upper edge region of the whole blood bag (31).
22. The centrifuge according to one of the claims 17 through 21
characterized by the fact that the sensor (21) is constructed to
enable a roughly radial processing.
23. The centrifuge according to one of the claims 17 through 22
characterized by the fact that the control elements for control
over the clamps (38 40) are deployed in the cartridge (5).
24. The centrifuge according to one of the claims 1 through 23
characterized by the fact that the energy and/or medium connections
are realized through the hub (2).
25. The centrifuge according to one of the claims 1 through 24
characterized by the fact that a welding apparatus is provided which
can weld together the bags (31 44 45) so that they are hermetically
26. The centrifuge according to one of the claims 1 through 25
characterized by the fact that a pressure module (61) deployed radially
inwardly is provided which can exert an effect on the whole blood
bag (31) in the radially outward direction and thus impact the bag
with the pressure.
27. The centrifuge according to one of the claims 1 through 16
characterized by the fact that the pressure module (61) contains
a cushion inflatable with compressed air, which can move a pressure
slide (59) that is arranged on the whole blood bag (31).
 The invention relates to a centrifuge comprising a blood
bag system with an upper and lower outlet for separation of blood
constituents according to the preamble of the independent patent
 From EP 0 026 417 B1 which was filed by the same applicant,
is already known a centrifuge comprising a blood bag system, in
which the blood bag is provided only with an upper outlet. The disadvantage
of this is that recovery of plasma is difficult.
 In addition, this application involves a swing-out hanger
attachment in which the phase boundaries between the individual
constituents are formed at a vertical level during the operation
of the centrifuge.
 EP 0 359 495 B1 on the other hand describes a vertical
blood bag system. This vertical system, however, has again the disadvantage
that the separation of the constituents is difficult because the
extraction is achieved from the middle of a blood bag that is provided
with an upper and a lower connection line. This necessitates the
insertion of a special blood bag which is thus more expensive to
manufacture, and which can moreover be easily burst open.
 This therefore means that upper and the lower connections
of the blood bag are not used for delivery of the recovered constituents
while the centrifuge is in operation, but only a custom-made outlet
which manufactured in the middle.
 The objective of this invention is therefore to further
develop a centrifuge having a vertical blood bag system according
to EP 0 350 495 B1 in such a way, so that blood bags that are normally
commercially available could be utilized, without necessitating
special adjustments of the bag.
 A second objective of the invention is to achieve recovery
of the individual constituents with a substantially higher level
of efficiency, functionality and with a higher degree of purity.
 In order to solve the above mentioned task, the invention
is provided with the technical pattern characterized in the independent
 An essential characteristic of the invention is that a whole
blood bag is used with upper and lower outlets, which are arranged
in the existing embodiment in the rotor, and that one outlet, for
example the upper outlet of this whole blood bag, is bent in a radial
direction while the opposite outlet of the blood bag is bent in
the other radial direction, so that the whole blood bag adopts in
its functioning position comprising its outlets approximately a
Z- or S-shape form.
 In comparison to prior art, this results in a substantial
advantage, namely that a blood bag that is freely commercially available
can be used with an upper and a lower outlet, without necessitating
the use of a special connection on this blood bag.
 It has been in fact proven that with this Z- or S-shaped
arrangement of a blood bag which is positioned vertically in the
rotor of the centrifuge it is now possible for the first time to
use in a clean manner for example the upper outlet, which is directed
in the inward radial direction, for recovery of plasma that is being
formed on this inward, radial level, while the outlet located opposite
in the radially outward direction can be used for recovery of leucocytes
which are also located in the interface of this phase.
 This results in yet another advantage because the so called
"buffycoat", which is in fact undesirable, can stay in
the whole blood bag and it will not be mixed with other constituents.
 There is in fact a number of other known inventions according
to existing technology, wherein the buffy coat must be transferred
to another bag in order to achieve a clean separation between the
erythrocytes and the plasma. This is avoided by the invention.
 The invention ensures that the undesirable buffy coat will
remain in the whole blood bag itself and that the blood bag is a
commercially available blood bag, that is to say that it has upper
and lower connection lines, which are henceforth used in accordance
with the invention, thanks to the special shaping form of the blood
bag in the centrifuge designed to extract the individual constituents
which are being formed during the operation of the centrifuge.
 In general, it should be pointed out that the blood bag
which is formed in the Z- or S-shape form can be stored during the
operation of the centrifuge in the rotor in any desired holder.
This means that any desired holder can be used, which is capable
of holding the blood bag in the Z or S form, in which bag for example
the upper connection line will be formed radially inward, while
the lower connection is formed radially outward.
 In accordance with this invention, a system having a plurality
of chambers is preferred, in which the formed blood bag is held
in an insert, while the insert itself is held in a cartridge.
 The use of this insert and cartridge system has a number
 A first advantage is that an insert having a relatively
simple construction can be used, in which one chamber of the whole
blood bag is suspended in the above described Z- or S-form and the
connections to the Z- or S-configuration are arranged so that yet
another chamber is deployed in this insert enabling to suspend therein
a bag serving for recovery of erythrocytes, while another chamber
is provided for a bag for recovery of plasma.
 Furthermore, it is sufficient when this insert is simply
provided with correspondingly guided clamps, wherein these clamps
open in a certain centrifuge stage and the transfer of the constituents
produced in the blood is thus enabled in individual satellite bag.
 These clamps are preferably guided manually when the objective
is to put the entire system into the insert during the standstill
status, because these clamps will then produce a clamp connection
when the small tube is operated by hand in order to disconnect the
corresponding supply and outlet tubes.
 During the operation of the centrifuge, these clamps are
closed as they are spring-loaded and they will be open only at a
predetermined stage of the process by a separately controlled force.
 This force has an effect only for a certain time period
which is controlled by sensors in order to guarantee that the formed
constituents will be transferred fully and practically without a
residue into the satellite bags.
 It is possible to use in this case a lifting cylinder as
a remote force means controlling the clamps, or an electromagnet,
a rotary slide, or other actuation elements that can be remotely
operated can be employed.
 It is also important in this connection that the insert
be equipped with the construction of the three chambers using the
above described clamped in as simple and inexpensive manner as possible.
 The actual controlling elements which control the clamps
are in this case arranged in a cartridge, whereby this cartridge
is constructed in the form of sectors so that a plurality of the
cartridges can be evenly distributed on the circumference of the
 These cartridges are provided with power connections through
the hub of the rotor. Each cartridge is equipped with a plug connection,
and a corresponding opposite plug is arranged on the hub of the
rotor, so that the required signal lines and air supply lines can
be fed via these plug connections between the hub of the rotor and
 It is obviously also possible to use instead of a continuous
plug connection for the supply of energy and air also two separate
plug connections per cartridge, wherein air is supplied to one of
the plug connections and electric energy is supplied to the other
 Signal lines are simply connected to a sensor which monitors
the transfer of the plasma into the satellite bags and controls
the associated clamp, when the sensor detects a coloring caused
by an other type of constituents in the transfer line.
 In the extraction line for recovery of erythrocytes is arranged
the same clamp which can be also actuated manually during the standstill
status, and which can be also controlled by a remotely controlled
actuation element while the centrifuge is in operation.
 It is therefore important in this respect that the cartridges,
which contain the actuation element for the inserts resting therein,
are screwed in the rotor relatively tightly, thus forming the machine
and actuation part of the insert so that the insert can be formed
in as simple manner as possible.
 When a similar type of insert is damaged, such an insert
can be very easily replaced, even if such an occurrence is caused
for example by an unnoticed defect of one or more bags during the
operation of the centrifuge.
 Moreover, the design provides that the cartridges, which
accommodate the inserts, can be closed with a transparent cover
and that this cover can be locked.
 This results specifically in the following advantage: passing
of the plasma from the whole blood bag into the adjacent whole plasma
bag can be observed very easily by means of a stroboscope during
the operation of the centrifuge from the upper part through a rotor
cover, which is also transparent, in order to control in this manner
the function of the sensor which monitors the transfer of the plasma.
 This stroboscope is controlled by the number of rotations
depending on the number of the rotations of the rotor.
 In addition to the above described remotely controllable
clamps, the design is also provided with a built-in welding apparatus
which ensures that the associated pipe lines or the supply tubes
will be separated and welded together once the plasma bag and the
erythrocyte bag have been fully filled up.
 In this manner it is thus possible to achieve a fully automatic
recovery of plasma and erythrocytes.
 Another advantage in comparison to existing art is that
thanks to the upright arrangement of the whole blood bag and thanks
to the capability to use a conventional whole blood bag having an
upper and a lower connection line, the ability to recover extra
pure plasma is now provided for the first time, because due to the
Z-shaped deformation of the whole blood bag in the centrifuge chamber
of the centrifuge, one outlet of the whole blood bag is directed
radially inward and thus brings the constituents produced radially
inward into the blood bag for withdrawal, while on the other hand,
the radially outward directed connection on the blood bag is deformed
in the outward direction in such a way that only this blood bag
will now be determined and suitable for withdrawal of the constituents
which are formed in the radially outward direction.
 It is also essential for the present invention that a radially
enclosed compressed air module be deployed, which can be operated
for example with a cushion that can be inflated by compressed air.
 This compressed air module is operated with a pressure slide
which can be moved in a radial direction from within and in the
outward direction against the blood bag.
 This means that the blood bag will be affected by the pressure
slide radially inward as it is positioned radially outward in an
associated separation wall in the insert.
 The blood bag deployed in this manner under pressure removes
the plasma through the supply tube and through an open valve (clamp)
into the adjacent satellite bag in which the plasma will be contained.
 Accordingly, after the withdrawal of the plasma constituents,
the upper valve is closed again and thereafter, the lower valve
for the withdrawal of erythrocytes is open and due to the consequent
action of this pressure shield, the erythrocyte constituents will
be also extracted when the clamp is open into the associated erythrocyte
 It has been established through experiments that the action
of the pressure shield is not necessarily required during the withdrawal
of the erythrocyte component, it may be sufficient when the effect
of the centrifugal force alone is employed to enable the withdrawal
of the erythrocyte constituents from the whole blood bag into the
 The following is a more detailed explanation of the invention
based on the enclosed drawings which serve solely for a representation
of an embodiment solution. Further characteristics and advantages
of the invention will become evident from the drawings and their
 The drawings show:
 FIG. 1: a perspective top view of a rotor provided with
a single cartridge attached therein;
 FIG. 2: the same representation as in FIG. 1 provided with
a plurality of cartridges attached therein, wherein one cartridge
space is left free for facility of inspection;
 FIG. 3: a cartridge according to FIGS. 1 and 2 shown in
a perspective rear view;
 FIG. 4: the cartridge according FIG. 3 including a representation
of further details;
 FIG. 5: an insert to be used in the cartridge seen from
the bottom side;
 FIG. 6: the insert according to FIG. 5 seen from the side
of the cover;
 FIG. 7: the insert according to FIG. 6 seen from the outside
and from above;
 FIG. 8: the insert according to FIG. 7 seen from directly
 FIG. 9: a schematic cross sectional view of a cartridge
having an insert built therein;
 FIG. 10: a cross sectional view of an arrangement according
to FIG. 9 including a representation of further details;
 FIG. 11: a schematic view of the position of the blood bag
during the operation of the centrifuge;
 FIG. 12: a modified embodiment with respect to FIG. 11.
 In accordance with FIG. 1 a hub 2 which is arranged in
a rotor 1 is provided with a plurality of plug connections 3 8.
 Through one of these plug connections can be supplied for
instance energy for each of the cartridges 5 held therein, while
air supplying operations can be conducted via the other plug connections
 It is, however, also possible for example not to employ
the plug connection 8 and supply air and electric energy only through
the plug connections 3.
 A plurality of cartridges 5 is arranged uniformly in the
interior space 4 of the rotor, wherein these cartridges can be built-in
between retaining pins in a detachable manner on the circumference
of the rotor.
 In another embodiment form, the cartridges 5 can be connected
with the rotor in a fixed manner. Corresponding bores 7 are provided
for this purpose in the base of the rotor so that screws passing
through these bores connect the base with each of the cartridges
 FIG. 3 and 4 show such a cartridge 5 in more detail.
 The cartridge is comprised essentially of an outer wall
71 which is employed in a force-locking and form-locking manner
on the inner wall of the rotor 1 as well as with a rear part 15
arranged opposite the outer wall 71 that is directed radially toward
 On the bottom side of the rear part 15 is arranged the above
mentioned matching plug which interacts with the plug connections
 The cartridge 5 can be therefore inserted into the rotor
from above and the matching plug arranged at bottom part of the
real part 15 will then be locked together with the plug connections
 The rear part 15 is connected to the rear wall 17 of the
cartridge 5 with screws 16.
 The cover 9 of the cartridge 5 has a transparent design
and it supports on its front side (directed radially outward) a
closing lid 10 which supports a locking bar 12 thus held in a
rotation axis 12 that can be locked with the associated locking
 The swivel hinge 14 of the cover 9 is arranged on the rear
 FIG. 4 also shows that an insert 25 is inserted into the
cassette 5 wherein the guide is provided between the cassette 5
and the insert 25 in such a way, so that the insert can be inserted
loose and with a clearance for free motion into the cassette.
 After the actuation elements have been arranged into the
rear part 15 of the cartridge as described above, a contrasting
arrangement of the actuation elements with respect to the associated
surface on insert 25 is thus created as will be explained in more
 It should be further explained with reference to FIG. 3
that the cartridge supports a guide bush 20 in the cover 9 in which
is arranged a sensor 21 which is movable in the directions of the
 The sensor is moved in this case through a shaft 19 which
is constructed as spindle and is connected so as to withstand rotations
with an adjusting wheel 18.
 The position of the sensor 21 can therefore be adjusted
in this manner continuously in the radial direction. In accordance
with FIG. 4 the insert 25 is provided with three chambers 23 24
26 which are separated from each other by separating partitions.
 The chamber 23 serves for accommodation of the whole blood
bag 31 while the chamber 24 serves for accommodation of the plasma
bag 45 and the chamber 26 serves for accommodation of the erythrocyte
 The adapter plate 27 indicated in the figure shows the tube
guiding channels, which will be also described later, and it also
provides mounting supports for suspension of the whole blood bag
31 having the form of pins. This adapter plate 27 is preferable
held in the insert 25 in a detachable manner.
 FIG. 5 shows one type of the insert 25 from the bottom side.
In this case one can see that the whole blood bag 31 is suspended
above, namely in the adapter plate 27 while its lower outlet having
the form of a tube 43 is guided between one of the clamping devices.
The whole blood bag 31 is also suspended with its lower connecting
edge on pings 42 which are arranged in the insert 25.
 The other chambers 24 26 of the insert 25 are sealed with
corresponding bottoms 33 34 and closed in the downward direction.
 The clamping device arranged on the bottom side is comprised
essentially of a manual actuator (hand wheel) 30 which is connected
via a shaft or axis with one of the clamps 40 that are slidable
in the lengthwise guide hole 41 wherein the hand wheel 30 is initially
energized with one of the locking springs, not shown in the figure,
in the locking position, so that the clamp 40 holds the tube 43
constantly in a tube guiding channel 29.
 Only when a ram deployed in the rear part 15 of the cartridge
5 in the form of a hub cylinder exerts an effect on the manual control
30 the clamp 40 will be moved into the opening position and through
flow in the tube will thus be enabled in the tube guiding channel
 The entire layout is thus arranged in the bottom side 28
of this insert 25 and one can moreover also recognize that on the
opposite side of the whole blood bag 31 the adapter plate 27 is
also equipped with a corresponding clamp that can be actuated manually,
which is comprised also in this case of a manual control 35 that
is held spring-loaded in the locking position, wherein the manual
control 35 is held at the free movable end with a counterpoise 36
which can be moved around a rotation axis 37.
 The FIGS. 6 and 7 show other details in the head region
of the insert 25. One can see in these figures that the tube 43
is led from the bottom region of the whole blood bag 31 upward through
a tube guiding channel 29 in the direction of the arrow 32 and enters
a tube channel 50 which is arranged in the region of the tube guide
 This tube guide 45a is constructed so that it is adjustable
in the radial direction and so as to be detectable. A guiding screw
47 thus provides clamping through an oblong hole 46 and can thus
be adjusted in this oblong hole.
 Overflow of the tube 43 in the radial direction can therefore
be adjusted with the radial adjustment of the tube guide. In this
manner is also determined how much of the erythrocytes should still
remain in the buffycoat.
 The tube 43 thus creates a connection between the whole
blood bag 31 and the erythrocyte bag 44 which is specified for recovery
 In addition, one can also see from FIG. 6 how a tube 53
which is used for recovery of plasma protrudes from the head region
of the whole blood bag 31 is bent inward therein in the radial
direction and leads over the adapter plate 27 through the intermediary
of the clamps 35 36 38 into the plasma bag 45 in the chamber 24
which serves for recovery of plasma.
 The clamp which serves for closing of the tube 53 that can
be remotely operated as well as manually operated for recovery of
plasma is clearly recognizable in FIG. 8 and it is comprised essentially
of a clamp 38 tensioned via a spring in the closing position, which
is employed at a fixed pin (stop pin 68). The clamp is thus constantly
spring-loaded in the closing position so that the plasma tube 53
will be constantly closed. The opening movement can be in this case
initiated manually or remotely.
 A counterpoise 36 is provided for manual activation. It
is mounted on a pivotable rotation axle which lifts under the effect
of actuation force 69 the manual control 35 against the force of
the spring 70 and thus opens the clamp 38.
 Instead of manual activation, which is performed only during
the standstill state of the centrifuge, remote control is achieved
during the operation of the centrifuge with an actuation ram of
an actuation cylinder, not shown in the figure, which is deployed
in the rear part 15 of the cartridge 5 and which exerts an effect
with its ram on the counterpoise in the direction of the arrow (FIG.
 Also important in the representation of FIG. 6 is the fact
that the blood bag 31 is now inserted in the chamber 23 in such
a way and bent on the side of the head and on the side of the base
in such a manner that the bag will create a roughly S-shaped form
when seen in a side view as show in FIG. 9.
 The upper tube 53 which serves for recovery of the plasma
is deformed radially inward with its tube connection so that it
will be outside of the central axis of the whole blood bag 31 while
on the other side in the opposite position at the end of the base
of the outgoing tube 43 it is oriented again radially inward, as
well as arranged outside of the longitudinal central axis of the
whole blood bag 31.
 This arrangement of the tube connections 43 53 eccentric
on both sides, is achieved only by the corresponding insertion and
attachment of the whole blood bag 31 in the chamber 23.
 No modifications whatsoever are in this case required on
the whole blood bag 31 itself, which means that commercially available
whole blood bags can be employed.
 The advantage of this is that the constituents suggested
in FIG. 9 can be formed during the operations of the centrifuge.
 Plasma 56 is formed in the whole blood bag 31 radially inward
with buffycoat 57 which is relatively sharply defined and formed
in the central region, while standing and relatively unchanged constituents
consisting of erythrocytes are formed radially outward.
 It is important in this case that both the inside and outside
placed constituents 56 58 can be extracted without interference
in the direction of the arrows 73 74 outside with a corresponding
time control through the opening of the associated clamps, without
influencing them in any way or without taking with them the buffycoat
 This constituent will therefore remain in the whole blood
bag 31 and there is no need to process it with another bag as was
the case according to prior art. This also means that there is no
need to contaminate with it another bag, which was also unavoidable
with the existing state of technology.
 Only the two clamps are suggested in FIG. 9 in the head
and in the base region of the tube 43 53. These clamps can formed
as roll tube clamps and they can be also provided with another closing
mechanism instead of the spring-loaded mechanism.
 It is important in this case that clamps be maintained in
the working condition in the closing position and that they be brought
into the open position only as required for a predetermined period
of time when a corresponding signal is issued.
 As one can also see from FIG. 9 the mounting of the blood
bag 31 occurs in such a way that the pins 48 which are arranged
on the adapter plate 27 outside of central longitudinal axis, provide
mounting support for the whole blood bag 31.
 The adapter plate 27 can thus be replaced depending on the
type of the used blood bag 31 so that corresponding tube guide channels
and attachments with pins 48 will accommodate the whole blood bag
 The same principle is applied also to the pins 42 in the
bottom region 28 and the through passages created therein, which
can also fit the blood bag 31 according the to the bag that is used.
 Incidentally, it is known that the whole blood bag 31 can
support a tube stump 51 which can be also engaged in the adapter
plate 27 in the area of a tube channel 49. The plasma tube 53 which
is used for recovery of the plasma, is led into a tube channel 52
in the adapter plate 27 (FIG. 6).
 FIG. 10 shows other functional parts of the arrangement,
wherein the allocation of the cartridge 5 and of the insert 25 is
depicted only by way of an example.
 The figure only illustrates the fact that the entire arrangement
is provided with an outer wall 54 which is deployed radially outward
on the inner wall of the rotor 1.
 The figure depicts a system having a plurality of chambers.
It is recognizable that the blood bag 31 is arranged in the chamber
23 in the system.
 A pressure slide 59 arranged radially inward, should be
preferably created with a vertical U-shaped profile and it is preferable
convexly curved radially outward.
 A compressed air connection 66 is provided via a tube 64
wherein this compress air connection is connected via the above
described 3 plug connections 3 or 8.
 When the entire pressure module 61 is inflated, a pressure
force is achieved in this manner in the direction of the arrow 76
which is acting in the same manner as the centrifugal force 75 (FIG.
 Therefore, only a relatively small amount of inflating under
a low pressure is sufficient to apply the corresponding pressure
to the bag 31.
 As is also shown in the figure, the entire arrangement can
be rotated around the rotation axis 62 for example in the direction
of the arrow 63.
 FIG. 11 indicates in a schematic manner the extraction of
the individual constituents during the operation of the centrifuge.
As one can see from the figure, an approximately Z-shaped form of
the whole blood bag is adopted and the resulting buffycoat constituents
57 are retained in the central region of the blood bag 31 while
one of the constituents, (plasma) 56 is conducted away through the
pipe connection 53 and the other constituents, (erythrocytes) 58
are conducted downward through the pipe connection 43.
 It is important in this respect that the pipe connection
53 be directed radially inward and that the pipe connection 43 be
directed radially outward.
 Thanks to this special Z-shaped form alone, a conventional
blood bag having an upper and a lower connection is suitable when
deployed in the vertical position for extraction of the various
constituents 56 58 as it enables withdrawal upward and downward.
 FIG. 12 depicts a modified embodiment, characterized by
a slanted posture of the pressure slide 59', which is inclined in
the vertical direction by angle 77 and by a corresponding slanted
posture of the associated adjoining chamber wall 67' forming a wedge-shaped
construction of the resulting buffycoat 57 which will thus be formed
in this manner.
 This results in a significant advantage, namely that when
the pressure slide 59' is moved in the direction of the arrow 76
pressure will be applied first in the lower region of the blood
bag 31 so that the buffycoat 57 will be formed further up in a
wedge-shape which is expanding in the upward direction.
 As soon as the position of the buffycoat 57' is extended
upward, as shown in FIG. 12 this means that the plasma will now
be in an inclined position, which is a signal for a light sensor
21 deployed above in the cover region to close the associated clamp
 This circumstance should be programmed via a corresponding
microprocessor control and it will depend upon the sensitivity and
the color change to which the light sensor is set.
 In addition, the sensor can be also shifted in the radial
direction as is indicated by the arrow direction 22 in FIG. 9.
 The sensor is positioned on the boundary between the constituents
of the buffycoat 57 toward plasma 56 to make it possible to detect
immediately a shifting of this boundary in the direction toward
the plasma tube 53 and to close the corresponding clamp 35.
 This among other things also ensures that a remaining supply
of plasma is retained in the blood bag 31 to prevent in a secure
manner contamination of the plasma bag 45 by the buffycoat 57.
 The remaining plasma also serves to provide nutrition for
 FIG. 9 further also indicates that the inset 25 too is equipped
with an inner wall 55 which forms a border of the chamber wall
and which is arranged on the other side of the pressure slider 59.
 In case of FIGS. 9 and 10 it is also important that both
the dead weight 71 of the pressure slide 59 and the centrifugal
force 75 are directed radially outward in the direction of the arrow
60 to make it possible to generate a very strong force with a very
low power-drive of the pressure slide 59.
 FIG. 9 also shows a radially outward arranged outer wall
72a and a radially inward arranged inner wall 72b of the cartridge
 The wedge shape of the buffycoat 57' is indicated in FIG.
12 with the reference symbol 78.
 The overall advantage of the above described technical version
is therefore that a clean recovery of plasma and erythrocytes is
enabled which is operationally safe and free of contaminants, wherein
the processing is conducted with commonly used and commercially
available bags. The recovery is conducted automatically and no manual
intervention is required.
 It is essential in the case of the present invention that
the blood bag be inserted into the accommodating chamber in an upright
standing form, so that its connection regions on the side of the
head and on the side of the base will be positioned outside of the
central axis (when applied to an unformed blood bag suspended in
a straight line). Only this arrangement makes it possible to guarantee
that these connecting regions will no longer be within the range
of the buffycoat zone formed in the central region.
 In this respect it does not matter whether the discharge
region which serves for the recovery of plasma, (in this embodiment
it is the head region of the blood bag), is located in the upper
or in the lower part. It is also possible to use a blood bag built
into the system in such a way that the connection tube used for
the recovery of plasma is located below and, conversely, the connection
tube used for the recovery of erythrocytes is located below.
 It is further also essential that both connecting regions
be positioned diametrically opposite each other, that is to say
that one connecting region be deployed in the opposite direction
to the other connecting region. In this case it does not matter
if for example the upper connecting region is used for recovery
of plasma in a radial line in the direction toward the rotational
axis of the centrifuge, while the other connecting region is located
diametrically opposite on an outwardly radial line directed away
from the hub of the rotor.
 It is obviously also possible that these connecting regions
are not aligned exactly on a radial line, they can be also formed
at an angle to the radial line, provided that they lie diametrically
opposite each other and that they have in each case only a continuous
connection to the whole blood constituents which are being formed
on each side.
 Instead of the above described Z-shape of the blood bag
it is also possible to employ an S-shape in accordance with the
 An arc-shaped removal design of the connection tubes 43
53 in front of the blood bag 31 is allowed.
 Neither is it necessary according to the present solution
for the satellite bags 44 45 to be located on the same circumference
level of the rotor 1. The bags can be also arranged on completely
different circumference levels. The same is true also about the
arrangement of the chamber for accommodation of the while blood
 This bag is arranged in the embodiment example radially
inward in comparison to the satellite bags 44 45 which are arranged
on the same circumference level so that they are directed radially
 It goes without saying that it is also possible to arrange
this whole blood bag 31 on a circumference level which lies radially
outward in comparison to the more radially inwardly arranged satellite
bags 44 45.