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Method of diagnosing breast cancer and compositions therefor

Abstrict

A method of diagnosing breast cancer in an individual aged younger than 41 or older than 54 is provided. The method comprises obtaining a nucleic acid from the individual and determining a nucleotide at a polymorphic site of the nucleic acid. Polynucleotides specific to breast cancer, a microarray comprising the polynucleotides, and diagnostic kits are also provided.

Claims

1. A method of diagnosing breast cancer in an individual aged younger than 41, which comprises obtaining a nucleic acid from the individual and determining a nucleotide at a polymorphic site of the nucleic acid, wherein the polymorphic site corresponds to position 101 of a polymorphic sequence selected from the polymorphic sequences enumerated in Table 1: Seq. Id Nos.: 2, 4-6, 9-10, 12-15, 17-33 and 36.

2. The method of claim 1, further comprising determining a genotype pattern present in the nucleic acid for a multilocus marker, wherein the multilocus marker is selected from the multilocus markers enumerated in Table 2.

3. The method of claim 2, wherein determining the genotype pattern comprises determining the nucleotide present in the nucleic acid at each polymorphic site comprising the multilocus marker.

4. The method of claim 1, wherein determining the nucleotide present at the polymorphic site comprises: hybridizing the nucleic acid from the individual to a microarray, wherein the microarray comprises a probe polynucleotide for determination of the nucleotide of the polymorphic site corresponding to position 101 of a polymorphic sequence selected from SEQ ID Nos.:2, 4-6, 9-10, 12-15, 17-33 and 36, or a complement thereof; and detecting the hybridization result.

5. The method of claim 2, wherein when the determined genotype pattern present in the nucleic acid is identical to the genotype pattern of the multilocus marker presented in Table 2, it is determined that the individual has a higher likelihood of being diagnosed as a breast cancer patient or of being at risk of developing breast cancer.

6. A method of diagnosing breast cancer in an individual aged older than 54, which comprises obtaining a nucleic acid from the individual and determining a nucleotide present at a polymorphic site of the nucleic acid, wherein the polymorphic site is a polymorphic site corresponding to position 101 of a polymorphic sequence selected from polymorphic sequences in Table 3: SEQ ID Nos.: 1-19, 21-24, 26-28 and 30-37

7. The method of claim 6, further comprising determining a genotype pattern present in the nucleic acid for of a multilocus marker, wherein the multilocus marker is selected from the multilocus markers enumerated in Table 4.

8. The method of claim 6, wherein determining the nucleotide at the polymorphic site comprises: hybridizing the nucleic acid from the individual to a microarray, wherein the microarray comprises a probe polynucleotide for determination of the nucleotide of the polymorphic site corresponding to position 101 of a polymorphic sequence selected from SEQ ID Nos.: 1-19, 21-24, 26-28 and 30-37 or a complement thereof; and detecting the hybridization result.

9. The method of claim 7, wherein determining the genotype pattern comprises determining the nucleotide present in the nucleic acid at each polymorphic site comprising the multilocus marker

10. The method of claim 7, wherein when the determined genotype pattern present in the nucleic acid is identical to the genotype pattern of the multilocus marker presented in Table 4, it is determined that the individual has a higher likelihood of being diagnosed as a breast cancer patient or of being at risk of developing breast cancer.

11. A polynucleotide having the whole or a contiguous part of a polymorphic sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID Nos.: 1-37, and wherein the contiguous part of the polymorphic sequence comprises position 101 of the polymorphic sequence, or a complement of the polynucleotide.

12. A set of multilocus marker polynucleotides, wherein the multilocus marker is selected from the multilocus markers of Table 2 or Table 4 and having the whole or a contiguous part selected from the multilocus markers of Table 2 or Table 4.

13. A microarray comprising the polynucleotide of claim 11.

14. A microarray comprising the set of multilocus marker polynucleotides of claim 12.

15. A diagnostic kit for the detection of breast cancer, comprising the polynucleotide of claim 11.

16. A diagnostic kit for the detection of breast cancer, comprising the set of multilocus marker polynucleotides of claim 12.

Description

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED PATENT APPLICATION

[0001] This application claims priority from Korean Patent Application No. 10-2005-0018439, filed on Mar. 5, 2005, in the Korean Intellectual Property Office, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein in its entirety by reference.

[0002] 1. Field of the Invention

[0003] The present invention relates to a method of diagnosing breast cancer using a polymorphic sequence specific to breast cancer, a polynucleotide specific to breast cancer, and a microarray and a diagnostic kit including the polynucleotide.

[0004] 2. Description of the Related Art

[0005] The genomes of all organisms undergo spontaneous mutation in the course of their continuing evolution, generating variant forms of progenitor nucleic acid sequences. The variant forms of progenitor nucleic acid sequences may confer an evolutionary advantage or disadvantage, or may be neutral relative to the progenitor form. In some instances, a variant form confers a lethal disadvantage and is not transmitted to subsequent generations of the organism. In other instances, a variant form confers an evolutionary advantage to the species and is eventually incorporated into the DNA of most members of the species and effectively becomes the progenitor form. In many instances, both progenitor and variant form(s) survive and co-exist in a species population. The differences in a DNA sequence that coexist in a population are referred to as a polymorphism. Examples of polymorphisms include restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), short tandem repeat (STR), and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). The position in a DNA sequence at which such a sequence difference is found is referred to as a polymorphic site.

[0006] A SNP is a polymorphism in which a single nucleotide varies in a DNA sequence. When a SNP occurs in a protein coding sequence within a gene, one of the polymorphic forms may give rise to a non-synonymous codon change causing expression of a variant protein that may have altered properties. When a SNP occurs in non-coding sequences of a gene, one of the polymorphic forms may also cause expression of a variant protein, for example, as a result of defective splicing of mRNA. However, many SNPs have no apparent phenotypic effects.

[0007] It is known that human SNPs occur at a frequency of about 1 per 1,000 base pair (bp). When such a SNP induces a phenotypic effect such as the presence or absence of a disease, polynucleotides containing an allele of the SNP can be used as primers or probes for diagnosis of the disease. Monoclonal antibodies specifically binding with an allele of the SNP can also be used in the diagnosis of a disease. Currently, research into the nucleotide sequences and functions of SNPs is being performed by many research institutes. The nucleotide sequences and other experimental results on identified SNPs have been put in databases to be easily accessible. Even though findings available to date show that specific SNPs exist in various genes or cDNAs of the human genome, the phenotypic effects of most human SNPs have not yet been discovered.

[0008] Currently, breast cancer is diagnosed by X-ray, ultrasonic diagnosis, or biochemical or molecular biological techniques. Among these techniques, molecular biological techniques cannot provide early diagnosis of breast cancer. Approximately 3 to 30 SNP sites associated with breast cancer have been identified in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes by Myriad Genetics, Inc. SNP markers associated with breast cancer are individually used in currently available diagnostic methods for the detection of breast cancer. However, there are no reports of a relationship between breast cancer and multilocus markers, which are combinations of individual SNP markers, or a method of diagnosing breast cancer using the multilocus markers.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0009] The present invention provides a method of diagnosing breast cancer in an individual aged younger than 41 or older than 54 using a breast cancer-specific polymorphic sequence.

[0010] The present invention also provides a breast cancer-specific polynucleotide for an individual aged younger than 41 or older than 54.

[0011] The present invention also provides a microarray and a diagnostic kit comprising a breast cancer-specific polynucleotide.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING

[0012] The above and other features and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent by describing in detail exemplary embodiments thereof with reference to the attached drawing in which:

[0013] FIG. 1 is a graph illustrating an odds ratio with respect to a multilocus marker in each of young, middle, and old age groups.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0014] The terms "a" and "an" do not denote a limitation of quantity, but rather denote the presence of at least one of the referenced item. The term "or" means "and/or". The terms "comprising", "having", "including", and "containing" are to be construed as open-ended terms (i.e., meaning "including, but not limited to").

[0015] Recitation of ranges of values are merely intended to serve as a shorthand method of referring individually to each separate value falling within the range, unless otherwise indicated herein, and each separate value is incorporated into the specification as if it were individually recited herein. The endpoints of all ranges are included within the range and independently combinable.

[0016] All methods described herein can be performed in a suitable order unless otherwise indicated herein or otherwise clearly contradicted by context. The use of any and all examples, or exemplary language (e.g., "such as"), is intended merely to better illustrate the invention and does not pose a limitation on the scope of the invention unless otherwise claimed. No language in the specification should be construed as indicating any non-claimed element as essential to the practice of the invention as used herein. Unless defined otherwise, technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as is commonly understood by one of skill in the art to which this invention belongs.

[0017] The present invention provides a method of diagnosing breast cancer in an individual aged younger than 41, which includes isolating a nucleic acid from the individual and determining a nucleotide of a polymorphic site of the nucleic acid. Determining the nucleotide of the polymorphic site can comprise determining a genotype of a polymorphic site (position 101) of at least one polymorphic sequence selected from polymorphic sequences in Table 1 below. TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 ID rs SEQ ID NO A1 A2 SMBC_003 rs1020445 2 G A SMBC_006 rs355510 4 G A SMBC_008 rs1477454 5 G A SMBC_009 rs422679 6 C T SMBC_013 rs916380 9 T C SMBC_014 rs6791 10 A G SMBC_018 rs729662 12 A G SMBC_020 rs1381067 13 T C SMBC_022 rs6668 14 T C SMBC_025 rs3824414 15 T C SMBC_031 rs198550 17 G A SMBC_034 rs476476 18 C T SMBC_035 rs10699 19 G A SMBC_037 rs736869 20 T C SMBC_042 rs2303114 21 T C SMBC_046 rs2347597 22 T C SMBC_048 rs5277 23 C G SMBC_054 rs2077647 24 C T SMBC_056 rs3218625 25 C T SMBC_060 rs2228480 26 G A SMBC_061 rs1372425 27 C T SMBC_062 rs841229 28 G A SMBC_064 rs355499 29 C T SMBC_068 rs1801132 30 C G SMBC_071 rs2518723 31 T C SMBC_072 rs12628 32 T C SMBC_076 rs2279901 33 A G SMBC_087 rs3731239 36 C T

[0018] In Table 1, the column labeled ID presents the name of a polymorphic sequence comprising a SNP (also referred to herein as a SNP marker). Herein, the term "polymorphic sequence" refers to a nucleotide sequence containing a polymorphic site at which a SNP occurs. The term "polymorphic site" refers to a position of a polymorphic sequence at which a SNP occurs. The column labeled rs presents the SNP identification number of the SNP in the NCBI dbSNP database. The NCBI dbSNP database is publicly available and thus is easily accessible to those of ordinary skill in the art. In the present invention, the rs numbers are taken from NCBI dbSNP build 123. The column labeled SEQ ID NO. presents the sequence identification number for a 201 bp reference sequence for identification of the SNP in a nucleic acid and the columns labeled A1 and A2 present the two alleles occurring at the polymorphic site of the SNP, position 101 in each of these reference sequences. It should be understood that even though the reference sequence having a polymorphic site may contain changes at sites other than position 101, the polymorphic sequence is also within the scope of the present invention.

[0019] According to an embodiment of the method of the present invention, the determination of the nucleotide of the polymorphic site includes determining a genotype pattern of at least one multilocus marker selected from multilocus markers in Table 2 below. As used herein, the term "multilocus marker" refers to a genotype pattern that appears at a combination of multiple polymorphic sites that is associated with breast cancer. TABLE-US-00002 TABLE 2 ID GP Y01 (013, 025, 034, 062) = (2-, 0, 2, 2) Y02 (025, 034, 064, 076) = (0, 2, 2-, 0-) Y03 (009, 022, 025, 060, 062) = (0-, 0-, 0, 0, 2) Y04 (008, 034, 042, 056, 062) = (1, 2, 2, 0, 0-) Y05 (008, 034, 042, 056, 068) = (1, 2, 2, 0, 0-) Y06 (022, 025, 035, 060, 072) = (0-, 0, 2, 0, 0) Y07 (006, 008, 018, 031, 048) = (1, 0-, 1, 2-, 0) Y08 (006, 008, 037, 071, 076) = (2-, 0-, 2-, 2-, 2) Y09 (006, 031, 034, 042, 060) = (2-, 0, 0-, 2, 0) Y10 (020, 025, 034, 056, 087) = (0, 0, 2, 0, 2) Y11 (003, 031, 061, 071, 076) = (2, 0, 1, 1, 2) Y12 (006, 018, 031, 048, 061) = (2-, 1, 0, 0, 0-) Y13 (006, 031, 048, 061, 076) = (2-, 0, 0, 1, 2) Y14 (009, 014, 034, 054, 064) = (2, 2, 0-, 2-, 1) Y15 (014, 018, 048, 064, 072) = (2, 0-, 0, 1, 0) Y16 (034, 037, 046, 061, 072) = (0-, 0, 2, 2-, 0)

[0020] In Table 2, ID represents a multilocus marker name; and GP represents a genotype pattern of a multilocus marker, wherein each three-digit numbers in parentheses on the left side of an equal sign (=) represents "numbers" of SMBC_numbers used to identify the polymorphic sequences of Table 1, and each one-digit number in parentheses on the right side of an equal sign represents a genotype of a polymorphic site of a polymorphic sequence of Table 1 corresponding to each corresponding three-digit numbers in parentheses on the left side of the equal sign, with: 0 being A1A1, 1 being A1A2, 2 being A2A2, 0- being A1A2 or A2A2, and 2- being A1A1 or A1A2 where A1 and A2 represent nucleotide alleles at a polymorphic site of each polymorphic sequence of Table 1. As each SNP has two possible alleles, the genotype of a SNP may exist in the form of a homozygote (e.g., A1A1) or a heterozygote (A1A2) in an individual.

[0021] The present invention also provides a method of diagnosing breast cancer in an. individual aged older than 54, which includes isolating a nucleic acid from the individual and determining a nucleotide of a polymorphic site of the nucleic acid, the determination of the nucleotide of the polymorphic site including determining a genotype of a polymorphic site (position 101) of at least one polymorphic sequence selected from polymorphic sequences in Table 3 below. TABLE-US-00003 TABLE 3 ID rs SEQ ID NO A1 A2 SMBC_001 rs1060442 1 G A SMBC_003 rs1020445 2 G A SMBC_005 rs1396953 3 C T SMBC_006 rs355510 4 G A SMBC_008 rs1477454 5 G A SMBC_009 rs422679 6 C T SMBC_010 rs903501 7 C T SMBC_011 rs892005 8 G A SMBC_013 rs916380 9 T C SMBC_014 rs6791 10 A G SMBC_016 rs1559472 11 A G SMBC_018 rs729662 12 A G SMBC_020 rs1381067 13 T C SMBC_022 rs6668 14 T C SMBC_025 rs3824414 15 T C SMBC_026 rs3802368 16 A G SMBC_031 rs198550 17 G A SMBC_034 rs476476 18 C T SMBC_035 rs10699 19 G A SMBC_042 rs2303114 21 T C SMBC_046 rs2347597 22 T C SMBC_048 rs5277 23 C G SMBC_054 rs2077647 24 C T SMBC_060 rs2228480 26 G A SMBC_061 rs1372425 27 C T SMBC_062 rs841229 28 G A SMBC_068 rs1801132 30 C G SMBC_071 rs2518723 31 T C SMBC_072 rs12628 32 T C SMBC_076 rs2279901 33 A G SMBC_083 rs2291752 34 C T SMBC_084 rs1614984 35 G A SMBC_087 rs3731239 36 C T SMBC_089 rs2585175 37 G C

[0022] In Table 3, the columns labeled ID, rs, SEQ ID NO, A1, and A2 are as defined above for Table 1.

[0023] In an embodiment of the method of the present invention, the determination of the nucleotide of the polymorphic site includes determining a genotype pattern of at least one multilocus marker selected from multilocus markers in Table 4 below. TABLE-US-00004 TABLE 4 ID GP O01 (014, 031, 046, 076, 089) = (2, 2-, 1, 2, 1) O02 (006, 009, 025, 054, 061) = (0-, 2, 2-, 1, 0-) O03 (006, 026, 054, 061, 084) = (0-, 2, 1, 0-, 1) O04 (009, 042, 046, 083, 089) = (2, 0-, 1, 0, 2-) O05 (009, 046, 054, 062, 084) = (2, 2-, 0-, 0-, 0-) O06 (009, 046, 062, 084, 089) = (2, 2-, 0-, 0-, 2-) O07 (011, 016, 020, 054, 061) = (1, 2-, 2-, 1, 0-) O08 (011, 018, 048, 060, 072) = (1, 1, 0, 2-, 0) O09 (011, 035, 042, 089) = (2, 2-, 2-, 2-) O10 (006, 008, 018, 061, 084) = (0-, 2-, 0-, 0-, 0-) O11 (008, 009, 011, 018, 089) = (0-, 2, 1, 2-, 2-) O12 (010, 011, 018, 025, 054) = (2-, 2-, 2-, 1, 0-) O13 (011, 035, 054, 061, 089) = (2, 2-, 0-, 2-, 2-) O14 (013, 016, 061, 084, 087) = (0, 0-, 0-, 0-, 2) O15 (013, 034, 046, 061, 084) = (0, 0-, 2-, 0-, 0-) O16 (018, 022, 060, 061, 087) = (2-, 1, 2-, 0-, 0-) O17 (005, 034, 083, 089) = (2, 1, 0, 1) O18 (001, 003, 010, 011, 048) = (0, 2, 2-, 1, 0) O19 (006, 034, 054, 068, 084) = (1, 0-, 0-, 2-, 1) O20 (008, 009, 018, 061, 071) = (1, 2, 2-, 0-, 0-) O21 (009, 011, 016, 072, 084) = (2-, 1, 2-, 0, 2-) O22 (011, 013, 018, 020, 054) = (2-, 0-, 2-, 2-, 1) O23 (013, 034, 054, 061, 084) = (0, 0-, 0-, 0-, 0-) O24 (001, 006, 014, 061, 062) = (0, 2, 2, 0-, 0-)

[0024] In Table 4, ID represents a multilocus marker name; and GP represents a genotype pattern of a multilocus marker, wherein each three-digit numbers in parentheses on the left side of an equal sign (=) represents "numbers" of SMBC_numbers used to identify the polymorphic sequences of Table 3, and each one-digit number in parentheses on the right side of an equal sign represents a genotype of a polymorphic site of a polymorphic sequence of Table 3 corresponding to each corresponding three-digit numbers in parentheses on the left side of the equal sign, with: 0 being A1A1, 1 being A1A2, 2 being A2A2, 0- being A1A2 or A2A2, and 2- being A1A1 or A1A2 where A1 and A2 represent nucleotide alleles at a polymorphic site of each polymorphic sequence of Table 3.

[0025] In the method of the present invention, the individual may be selected from women belonging to any race. Preferably, the individual is a yellow race woman, and more preferably, a Korean woman.

[0026] In the method of the present invention, the nucleic acid, which is a chain of nucleotides, may be DNA, RNA, or a derivative thereof. Here, the term "DNA" includes, for example, biologically-derived DNA, synthetic or semisynthetic DNA, and cDNA derived from mRNA.

[0027] In the method of the present invention, the isolation of the nucleic acid from the individual can be carried out by any DNA isolation method known in the art. For example, the isolation of the nucleic acid can be achieved by directly purifying a target nucleic acid from a tissue or cell or by specifically amplifying a target nucleic acid by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by purification. In addition to PCR, other methods include ligase chain reaction (LCR) (Wu and Wallace, Genomics 4, 560 (1989), Landegren et al., Science 241, 1077 (1988)), transcription amplification (Kwoh et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 1173 (1989)), self-sustained sequence replication (Guatelli et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87, 1874 (1990)), or nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA).

[0028] The determination of the nucleotide of the polymorphic site of the nucleic acid can be carried out by any method known in the art. For example, a dideoxy method for direct nucleotide sequence determination or a hybridization method can be used. According to the hybridization method, a nucleic acid is allowed to hybridize with a probe having a polymorphic sequence, or its complement, and the degree of the hybridization is measured. For example, the measurement of the degree of the hybridization can be achieved by labeling target nucleic acids with a labeling material generating a detectable signal and specifically detecting hybridized target nucleic acids. Electrical signal detection may also be used.

[0029] In an embodiment of the method of the present invention, the determination of the nucleotide of the polymorphic site includes hybridizing the nucleic acid derived from the individual onto a microarray; and detecting the hybridization result. The microarray comprises probe polynucleotides comprising the nucleotides of one or more of the polymorphic sites of the SNP markers of Table 1 or 3, or the complement polynucleotides thereof, immobilized on a substrate.

[0030] A microarray is a substrate in which probes capable of specifically binding with target nucleic acids are immobilized onto specific regions of the substrate, and is widely used for rapid analysis of various biological samples. The length of the probes is not particularly limited, but may be 10 to 100 bp. A method of manufacturing a polynucleotide microarray is well known in the art. Any method of manufacturing a polynucleotide microarray known in the art may be used herein. Hybridization of nucleic acids on a microarray and detection of the hybridization result are also well known in the art. For example, the detection of the hybridization result can be performed by labeling a nucleic acid sample with a labeling material generating a detectable signal, such as a fluorescent material (e.g., Cy3 or Cy5), hybridizing the labeled nucleic acid sample onto a microarray, and detecting a signal generated from the labeling material.

[0031] As a result of the determination of the nucleotide of the polymorphic site, when the nucleic acid derived from the individual contains at least one risk allele, it may be determined that the individual has a higher likelihood of being diagnosed as a breast cancer patient or as at risk of developing breast cancer. In an embodiment of the method of the present invention, when the nucleic acid derived from the individual satisfies the genotype pattern of at least one of the multilocus markers of Table 2 or 4, it is determined that the individual has a higher likelihood of being diagnosed as a breast cancer patient or as at risk of developing breast cancer.

[0032] The present invention also provides a polynucleotide having the whole or a part of a polymorphic sequence selected from the group consisting of polymorphic sequences of Table 1 or Table 3 and wherein the part of the polymorphic sequence comprises a nucleotide at a polymorphic site (position 101) of the selected polymorphic sequence, or the complement of such a polynucleotide. The length of the polynucleotide is not particularly limited, but may be 10 to 201 bp, preferably 10 to 100 bp.

[0033] The polynucleotide of the present invention is specifically associated with breast cancer in a woman aged younger than 41 or older than 54. Thus, the polynucleotide can be effectively used in the diagnosis or treatment of breast cancer.

[0034] Herein, "a set of multilocus marker polynucleotides" means a set of polynucleotides including a polynucleotide for each of at least two of the respective SNP markers of a multilocus marker selected from the multilocus markers of Table 2, which are specifically associated with breast cancer in an individual aged younger than 41, or the multilocus markers of Table 4, which are specifically associated with breast cancer in an individual aged older than 54.

[0035] The polynucleotide can be used as a primer or a probe, but the present invention is not limited thereto. When using the polynucleotide as a probe, the polynucleotide may be in a solution or immobilized onto a solid substrate. For the latter, the polynucleotide may be used in the form of a microarray in which a polynucleotide array is deposited onto predetermined small regions.

[0036] The present invention also provides a microarray in which a polynucleotide having the whole or a part of a polymorphic sequence selected from the group consisting of the polymorphic sequences of Table 1 or Table 3 and wherein the part of the polymorphic sequence comprises a nucleotide of a polymorphic site (position 101) of the selected polymorphic sequence, or the complement of such a polynucleotide, is immobilized on a solid substrate. The microarray may include a set of multilocus marker polynucleotides for at least one multilocus marker of Table 2 or Table 4. The length of the polynucleotide is not particularly limited, but may be 10 to 201 bp, preferably 10 to 100 bp.

[0037] A microarray is well known in the art, and thus, the microarray of the present invention can be easily manufactured by those of ordinary skill in the art.

[0038] The present invention also provides a diagnostic kit for the detection of breast cancer, which includes a polynucleotide having the whole or a part of a polymorphic sequence selected from the group consisting of the polymorphic sequences of Table 1 or Table 3 and wherein the part of the polymorphic sequence comprises a nucleotide of a polymorphic site (position 101) of the polymorphic sequence, or the complement of such a polynucleotide, and a manufacturer's specification. The diagnostic kit may include a set of multilocus marker polynucleotides for at least one multilocus marker of Table 2 or Table 4. The length of the polynucleotide is not particularly limited, but may be 10 to 201 bp, preferably 10 to 100 bp.

[0039] In the diagnostic kit of the present invention, the polynucleotide contained in the diagnostic kit is as described above. The manufacturer's specification must state a method, materials, etc. to an extent that can be understood by those of ordinary skill in the art. For example, the diagnostic kit can be used in identifying a predetermined allele at a polymorphic site by hybridizing a nucleic acid sample derived from an individual onto the polynucleotide of the present invention used as a probe and measuring the degree of hybridization using a signal generated from the resultant hybrids. Based on the identification of predetermined allele or genotype, it can be determined if the individual has a likelihood of being diagnosed as at risk of developing breast cancer or as a breast cancer patient.

[0040] In the present invention, the polymorphic sequences (SNP markers) of Tables 1 and 3 and combinations of two or more of the polymorphic sequences are associated with breast cancer. The multilocus markers of Tables 2 and 4 are particularly associated with breast cancer. This was confirmed by DNA nucleotide sequence analysis of blood samples from breast cancer patients and normal persons. It is known that the incidence of breast cancer in women varies before and after menopause. Thus, the analyses of the genotype patterns of the multilocus markers were conducted in three age groups of the subjects which were classified based on the age of menopause. It is known that Korean women experience menopause at an average age of 47.6 and have menstrual transition for about 4 years. In this regard, the three age groups were as follows: young age group of 40 years or less, middle age group of 41-54 years, old age group of 55 years or more. The number of persons in each age group is presented in Table 5 below. TABLE-US-00005 TABLE 5 Group Case Normal Total Young 87 90 177 Middle 117 120 237 Old 96 90 186

[0041] Occurrence frequency, odds ratio, and the 95% confidence interval (Cl) of the odds ratio for each multilocus marker in the case group and the normal group are presented in Tables 6 and 7 below.

[0042] Table 6 shows the results for the young age group of 40 years or less. As shown in Table 6, the genotype patterns of the multilocus markers Y01 through Y16 specifically appeared in the case group, and the odds ratios of the multilocus markers Y01 through Y16 were more than 38. These results reveal that the multilocus markers Y01 through Y16 are positively associated with breast cancer. TABLE-US-00006 TABLE 6 ID GP #Case #Control OR 95% CI Y01 (013, 025, 034, 062) = (2-, 0, 2, 2) 20 0 54.97 (3.27, 925.06) Y02 (025, 034, 064, 076) = (0, 2, 2-, 0-) 19 0 51.53 (3.06, 868.43) Y03 (009, 022, 025, 060, 062) = (0-, 0-, 0, 0, 2) 19 0 51.53 (3.06, 868.43) Y04 (008, 034, 042, 056, 062) = (1, 2, 2, 0, 0-) 17 0 44.93 (2.66, 760.06) Y05 (008, 034, 042, 056, 068) = (1, 2, 2, 0, 0-) 17 0 44.93 (2.66, 760.06) Y06 (022, 025, 035, 060, 072) = (0-, 0, 2, 0, 0) 17 0 44.93 (2.66, 760.06) Y07 (006, 008, 018, 031, 048) = (1, 0-, 1, 2-, 0) 16 0 41.77 (2.46, 708.17) Y08 (006, 008, 037, 071, 076) = (2-, 0-, 2-, 2-, 2) 16 0 41.77 (2.46, 708.17) Y09 (006, 031, 034, 042, 060) = (2-, 0, 0-, 2, 0) 16 0 41.77 (2.46, 708.17) Y10 (020, 025, 034, 056, 087) = (0, 0, 2, 0, 2) 16 0 41.77 (2.46, 708.17) Y11 (003, 031, 061, 071, 076) = (2, 0, 1, 1, 2) 15 0 38.70 (2.28, 657.74) Y12 (006, 018, 031, 048, 061) = (2-, 1, 0, 0, 0-) 15 0 38.70 (2.28, 657.74) Y13 (006, 031, 048, 061, 076) = (2-, 0, 0, 1, 2) 15 0 38.70 (2.28, 657.74) Y14 (009, 014, 034, 054, 064) = (2, 2, 0-, 2-, 1) 15 0 38.70 (2.28, 657.74) Y15 (014, 018, 048, 064, 072) = (2, 0-, 0, 1, 0) 15 0 38.70 (2.28, 657.74) Y16 (034, 037, 046, 061, 072) = (0-, 0, 2, 2-, 0) 15 0 38.70 (2.28, 657.74)

[0043] In Table 6, ID and GP are as defined above in Table 2. #case and #control represent the occurrence frequency of each multilocus marker in the case group and the normal group, respectively. OR represents the odds ratio and 95% Cl represents the 95% confidence interval for the odds ratio. 73 of the 87 cases satisfied the genotype pattern of at least one of the multilocus markers Y01 through Y16 (73/87=84%).

[0044] Table 7 shows the results for the old age group of 55 years or more. As shown in Table 7, the genotype patterns of the multilocus markers O01 through O24 specifically appeared in the case group, and the odds ratios of the multilocus markers O01 through O24 were more than 26. These results reveal that the multilocus markers O01 through O24 are positively associated with breast cancer. TABLE-US-00007 TABLE 7 ID GP #Case #Control OR 95% CI O01 (014, 031, 046, 076, 089) = (2, 2-, 1, 2, 1) 18 0 42.66 (2.53, 719.39) O02 (006, 009, 025, 054, 061) = (0-, 2, 2-, 1, 0-) 17 0 39.84 (2.36, 673.28) O03 (006, 026, 054, 061, 084) = (0-, 2, 1, 0-, 1) 17 0 39.84 (2.36, 673.28) O04 (009, 042, 046, 083, 089) = (2, 0-, 1, 0, 2-) 17 0 39.84 (2.36, 673.28) O05 (009, 046, 054, 062, 084) = (2, 2-, 0-, 0-, 0-) 17 0 39.84 (2.36, 673.28) O06 (009, 046, 062, 084, 089) = (2, 2-, 0-, 0-, 2-) 17 0 39.84 (2.36, 673.28) O07 (011, 016, 020, 054, 061) = (1, 2-, 2-, 1, 0-) 17 0 39.84 (2.36, 673.28) O08 (011, 018, 048, 060, 072) = (1, 1, 0, 2-, 0) 17 0 39.84 (2.36, 673.28) O09 (011, 035, 042, 089) = (2, 2-, 2-, 2-) 16 0 37.1 (2.19, 628.33) O10 (006, 008, 018, 061, 084) = (0-, 2-, 0-, 0-, 0-) 16 0 37.1 (2.19, 628.33) O11 (008, 009, 011, 018, 089) = (0-, 2, 1, 2-, 2-) 16 0 37.1 (2.19, 628.33) O12 (010, 011, 018, 025, 054) = (2-, 2-, 2-, 1, 0-) 16 0 37.1 (2.19, 628.33) O13 (011, 035, 054, 061, 089) = (2, 2-, 0-, 2-, 2-) 16 0 37.1 (2.19, 628.33) O14 (013, 016, 061, 084, 087) = (0, 0-, 0-, 0-, 2) 16 0 37.1 (2.19, 628.33) O15 (013, 034, 046, 061, 084) = (0, 0-, 2-, 0-, 0-) 16 0 37.1 (2.19, 628.33) O16 (018, 022, 060, 061, 087) = (2-, 1, 2-, 0-, 0-) 16 0 37.1 (2.19, 628.33) O17 (005, 034, 083, 089) = (2, 1, 0, 1) 15 0 34.42 (2.03, 584.5) O18 (001, 003, 010, 011, 048) = (0, 2, 2-, 1, 0) 15 0 34.42 (2.03, 584.5) O19 (006, 034, 054, 068, 084) = (1, 0-, 0-, 2-, 1) 15 0 34.42 (2.03, 584.5) O20 (008, 009, 018, 061, 071) = (1, 2, 2-, 0-, 0-) 15 0 34.42 (2.03, 584.5) O21 (009, 011, 016, 072, 084) = (2-, 1, 2-, 0, 2-) 15 0 34.42 (2.03, 584.5) O22 (011, 013, 018, 020, 054) = (2-, 0-, 2-, 2-, 1) 15 0 34.42 (2.03, 584.5) O23 (013, 034, 054, 061, 084) = (0, 0-, 0-, 0-, 0-) 24 1 29.67 (3.92, 224.61) O24 (001, 006, 014, 061, 062) = (0, 2, 2, 0-, 0-) 22 1 26.46 (3.48, 200.98)

[0045] In Table 7, ID, GP, OR, and 95% Cl are as defined above for Table 6. 91 of the 96 casas satisfied the genotype pattern of at least one of the multilocus markers O01-O24 (91/96=94%).

[0046] The number of persons in each of the three age groups satisfying the genotype patterns of each of the multilocus markers Y01-Y16 and O01-O24 is presented in Table 8 below. TABLE-US-00008 TABLE 8 Young Middle Old ID #Case #Control OR #Case #Control OR #Case #Control OR Y01 20 0 53.73 9 14 0.63 9 10 0.83 Y02 19 0 50.29 15 10 1.62 15 14 1.01 Y03 19 0 50.29 8 14 0.56 8 12 0.59 Y04 17 0 43.71 21 19 1.16 9 12 0.67 Y05 17 0 43.71 12 14 0.87 6 12 0.43 Y06 17 0 43.71 7 18 0.36 4 15 0.22 Y07 16 0 40.56 11 15 0.73 13 10 1.25 Y08 16 0 40.56 7 10 0.70 11 12 0.84 Y09 16 0 40.56 11 8 1.45 9 12 0.67 Y10 16 0 40.56 8 6 1.39 6 7 0.79 Y11 15 0 37.50 7 8 0.89 9 9 0.93 Y12 15 0 37.50 9 12 0.75 9 10 0.83 Y13 15 0 37.50 8 9 0.91 8 10 0.73 Y14 15 0 37.50 11 2 6.12 8 7 1.08 Y15 15 0 37.50 11 12 0.93 8 11 0.65 Y16 15 0 37.50 5 9 0.55 6 9 0.60 O01 7 5 1.49 10 9 1.15 18 0 41.54 O02 8 4 2.18 12 9 1.41 17 0 38.73 O03 8 8 1.04 13 13 1.03 17 0 38.73 O04 6 8 0.76 7 5 1.46 17 0 38.73 O05 10 13 0.77 6 7 0.87 17 0 38.73 O06 10 13 0.77 8 5 1.69 17 0 38.73 O07 4 3 1.40 9 6 1.58 17 0 38.73 O08 11 7 1.72 10 12 0.84 17 0 38.73 O09 0 2 0.00 7 8 0.89 16 0 36.00 O10 16 15 1.13 17 16 1.11 16 0 36.00 O11 8 10 0.81 12 6 2.17 16 0 36.00 O12 4 10 0.39 13 15 0.88 16 0 36.00 O13 5 5 1.04 9 9 1.03 16 0 36.00 O14 11 6 2.03 9 8 1.17 16 0 36.00 O15 4 5 0.82 11 6 1.97 16 0 36.00 O16 7 5 1.49 7 7 1.03 16 0 36.00 O17 8 11 0.73 12 9 1.41 15 0 33.33 O18 9 8 1.18 19 9 2.39 15 0 33.33 O19 5 4 1.31 10 5 2.15 15 0 33.33 O20 2 6 0.33 11 6 1.97 15 0 33.33 O21 6 7 0.88 17 15 1.19 15 0 33.33 O22 5 7 0.72 10 5 2.15 15 0 33.33 O23 12 6 2.24 12 7 1.84 24 1 29.67 O24 16 10 1.80 12 18 0.65 22 1 26.46

[0047] In Table 8, Young, Middle, and Old represent samples derived from the young age group of 40 years or less, the middle age group of 41-54 years, and the old age group of 55 years or more, respectively, OR represents the odds ratio, #case and #control represcent the number of persons satisfying the genotype pattern of each multilocus marker in the case group and the normal group, respectively. FIG. 1 is a graph illustrating an odds ratio with respect to a multilocus marker in each of the young, middle, and old age groups. FIG. 1 shows that the multilocus markers Y01-Y16 are specific markers associated with breast cancer in an age group of 40 years or less, and the multilocus markers O01-O24 are specific markers associated with breast cancer in an age group of 55 years or more.

[0048] The chi-square values and odds ratios for the individual SNP markers belonging to the multilocus markers Y01-Y16 in the young age group of 40 years or less are presented in Table 9 below. TABLE-US-00009 TABLE 9 ID Delta Chi-exact_pValue OR CI con_HWE SMBC_003 0.01 0.747 0.69 (0.191, 2.492) HWE SMBC_006 0.04 0.542 1.28 (0.754, 2.163) HWE SMBC_008 0.08 0.143 0.74 (0.482, 1.121) HWE SMBC_009 0.03 0.837 0.89 (0.578, 1.382) HWE SMBC_013 0.07 0.361 1.34 (0.856, 2.108) HWE SMBC_014 0 0.767 0.97 (0.52, 1.802) HWE SMBC_018 0.08 0.305 0.73 (0.472, 1.116) HWE SMBC_020 0.06 0.398 0.73 (0.449, 1.196) HWE SMBC_022 0.03 0.288 1.6 (0.704, 3.637) HWE SMBC_025 0.13 0.046 1.73 (1.113, 2.696) HWE SMBC_031 0.04 0.257 1.83 (0.811, 4.119) HWE SMBC_034 0.06 0.349 0.71 (0.425, 1.171) HWE SMBC_035 0 0.980 0.95 (0.447, 2.008) HWE SMBC_037 0.03 0.514 0.87 (0.561, 1.342) HWE SMBC_042 0.07 0.192 0.71 (0.441, 1.144) HWE SMBC_046 0.03 0.773 0.86 (0.538, 1.367) HWE SMBC_048 0.01 0.805 1.22 (0.47, 3.169) HWE SMBC_054 0 0.988 1.02 (0.649, 1.59) HWE SMBC_056 0.02 0.212 4.77 (0.551, 41.25) HWE SMBC_060 0.05 0.178 1.38 (0.806, 2.372) HWE SMBC_061 0.04 0.237 1.19 (0.77, 1.836) HWE SMBC_062 0.03 0.523 0.86 (0.547, 1.351) HWE SMBC_064 0.09 0.180 1.44 (0.929, 2.219) HWE SMBC_068 0.02 0.884 0.93 (0.608, 1.412) HWE SMBC_071 0.08 0.365 0.73 (0.477, 1.127) HWE SMBC_072 0.07 0.273 1.54 (0.897, 2.647) HWE SMBC_076 0.03 0.625 0.86 (0.51, 1.438) HWE SMBC_087 0.01 0.665 0.88 (0.46, 1.667) HWE

[0049] Table 9 shows that each SNP marker is associated with breast cancer. In Table 9, ID represents a SNP marker name, Delta represents the absolute value of the difference between the allele frequency of the case group and the allele frequency of the normal group. Here, the allele A2 frequency of the normal group is (genotype A2A2 frequency.times.2+genotype A1A2 frequency)/(the number of samples.times.2) in the normal group. Chi_exact_pValue represents the p-value determined using Fisher's exact test of chi-square test. When the number of genotypes is less than 5, results of the chi-square test may be inaccurate. Therefore, determination of the statistical significance (p-value) by the more accurate Fisher's exact test is desirable. In the present invention, when the p-value.ltoreq.0.05, it is considered that the genotype of the case group is different from that of the normal group, i.e., there is a significant difference between the case group and the normal group. In Tables 6-9, the OR (odds ratio) represents the ratio of the probability of the risk allele in the case group to the probability of the risk allele in the normal group. In the present invention, the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio method was used. Cl represents 95% confidence interval for the odds ratio and is represented by (lower bound of the confidence interval, upper bound of the confidence interval). When 1 falls under the confidence interval, it is considered that there is insignificant association of risk allele with disease. HWE represents Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. According to Mendel's Law of inheritance and Hardy-Weinberg Law, the genetic makeup of alleles constituting a population is maintained at a constant frequency. When the genetic makeup is statistically significant, it can be considered to be biologically meaningful. Here, con_HWE represents the degree of deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium in the normal group. Based on a chi_value=6.63 (p-value=0.01, df=1) in a chi-square (df=1) test, a value larger than 6.63 was regarded as Hardy-Weinberg Disequilibrium (HWD) and a value smaller than 6.63 was regarded as Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE).

[0050] The chi-square values and odds ratios for the individual SNP markers belonging to the multilocus markers O01-O24 in the old age group of 55 years or more are presented in Table 10 below. TABLE-US-00010 TABLE 10 ID Delta Chi_exact_pValue OR CI con_HWE SMBC_001 0.07 0.171 1.41 (0.898, 2.229) HWE SMBC_003 0.03 0.311 1.8 (0.652, 4.98) HWE SMBC_005 0.01 0.676 0.63 (0.104, 3.801) HWE SMBC_006 0.01 0.656 0.93 (0.571, 1.524) HWE SMBC_008 0.06 0.485 0.77 (0.514, 1.166) HWE SMBC_009 0.03 0.271 0.87 (0.566, 1.338) HWE SMBC_010 0.02 0.902 0.91 (0.599, 1.376) HWE SMBC_011 0.05 0.032 1.25 (0.789, 1.975) HWE SMBC_013 0 0.274 1.01 (0.646, 1.572) HWE SMBC_014 0.01 0.613 1.05 (0.57, 1.921) HWE SMBC_016 0.07 0.162 1.33 (0.878, 2.008) HWE SMBC_018 0.03 0.366 1.15 (0.742, 1.779) HWE SMBC_020 0.01 0.743 0.95 (0.603, 1.507) HWE SMBC_022 0.03 0.233 1.59 (0.729, 3.465) HWE SMBC_025 0.04 0.178 1.18 (0.772, 1.819) HWE SMBC_026 0.01 0.836 0.88 (0.402, 1.93) HWE SMBC_031 0.06 0.118 0.42 (0.178, 0.982) HWE SMBC_034 0.01 0.973 1.05 (0.646, 1.717) HWE SMBC_035 0.09 0.036 2.04 (1.119, 3.712) HWE SMBC_042 0.07 0.308 1.41 (0.893, 2.241) HWE SMBC_046 0.04 0.141 1.18 (0.758, 1.834) HWE SMBC_048 0.05 0.025 4.06 (1.114, 14.81) HWE SMBC_054 0.07 0.047 0.75 (0.49, 1.151) HWE SMBC_060 0.02 0.901 0.89 (0.532, 1.487) HWE SMBC_061 0.1 0.163 0.68 (0.45, 1.026) HWE SMBC_062 0.01 0.920 1.02 (0.659, 1.586) HWE SMBC_068 0.01 0.883 1.03 (0.687, 1.558) HWE SMBC_071 0.1 0.191 0.67 (0.442, 1.014) HWE SMBC_072 0.04 0.148 1.32 (0.771, 2.247) HWE SMBC_076 0.01 0.790 1.04 (0.62, 1.729) HWE SMBC_083 0.03 0.578 1.18 (0.724, 1.913) HWE SMBC_084 0.01 0.338 0.96 (0.621, 1.47) HWE SMBC_087 0.02 0.800 0.89 (0.517, 1.53) HWE SMBC_089 0.06 0.161 1.27 (0.835, 1.938) HWE

[0051] Table 10 shows that each SNP marker is associated with breast cancer. Column labels are as defined for Table 9.

[0052] Information about the individual SNP markers belonging to the multilocus markers Y01-Y16 and O01-O24 of the present invention are summarized in Table 11 below. TABLE-US-00011 TABLE 11 rs ID Band Gene fxn class aa_residue aa_position rs1060442 SMBC_001 19p13.3 THRAP5 coding-synon F 277 rs1020445 SMBC_003 2p21 PRKCE Intron null rs1396953 SMBC_005 2q34 LANCL1 Intron null rs355510 SMBC_006 4q13.2 CENPC1 coding-synon S 232 rs1477454 SMBC_008 2q32.1 LOC389066 Intron null rs422679 SMBC_009 17p13.1 RPL26 Intron null rs903501 SMBC_010 17q12 CAB2 Intron null rs892005 SMBC_011 5q33.1 G3BP Intron null rs916380 SMBC_013 1p36.22 Intergenic n/a n/a rs6791 SMBC_014 19p13.2 STXBP2 coding-nonsynon V.fwdarw.I 526 rs1559472 SMBC_016 2p23.3 ITSN2 Intron null rs729662 SMBC_018 11p15.4 CARS Coding-synon P 623 rs1381067 SMBC_020 3q13.31 LSAMP Intron null rs6668 SMBC_022 7p15.2 Intergenic n/a n/a rs3824414 SMBC_025 9q33.3 SLC2A8 Intron null rs3802368 SMBC_026 9q33.3 SLC2A8 Intron null rs198550 SMBC_031 17q21.33 CACNA1G Intron null rs476476 SMBC_034 18p11.32 KIAA0650 Intron null rs10699 SMBC_035 5q12.3 ARFD1 mrna-utr, intron null rs736869 SMBC_037 2p25.3 D2S448 Intron null rs2303114 SMBC_042 19p13.2 Intergenic n/a n/a rs2347597 SMBC_046 5q33.1 G3BP Intron null rs5277 SMBC_048 1q31.1 PTGS2 coding-synon V 102 rs2077647 SMBC_054 6q25.1 ESR1 coding-synon S 10 rs3218625 SMBC_056 1q31.1 PTGS2 coding-nonsynon R 587 rs2228480 SMBC_060 6q25.2 ESR1 coding-synon T 594 rs1372425 SMBC_061 3p12.3 ROBO2 Intron null rs841229 SMBC_062 16p13.3 MGRN1 Intron null rs355499 SMBC_064 4q13.2 CENPC1 Intron null rs1801132 SMBC_068 6q25.1 ESR1 coding-synon P 325 rs2518723 SMBC_071 9p21.3 CDKN2A locus-region null rs12628 SMBC_072 11p15.5 HRAS coding-synon H 27 rs2279901 SMBC_076 11p15.1 TSG101 coding-synon D 236 rs2291752 SMBC_083 11p15.1 TSG101 locus-region null rs1614984 SMBC_084 17p13.1 TP53 locus-region null rs3731239 SMBC_087 9p21.3 CDKN2A intron, mrna-utr null rs2585175 SMBC_089 8q24.3 HSJ001348 locus-region null

[0053] In Table 11, "Band" indicates the chromosome number of the SNP, where "p" is the short arm of the chromosome from the centromere, "q" is the long arm from the centromere, and the numbers are the band numbers. For example, when the number of SNP positioned in ID: SMBC.sub.--001 is 19p13.3, the SNP is located in the short arm (p) of the 19th chromosome and in the band 13.3 region. "Gene" refers to a gene including the SNP. "fxn_class" indicates a role performed by the SNP within the gene. "aa_residue" indicates the amino acid of the SNP. "aa_position" indicates the position of the amino acid in the protein produced from the gene.

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