A cat litter composition is provided which contains on the litter
particles an antimicrobial composition, which is the admixture of
a diquat, a polycarboxylic acid, at least one phenol compound and
a carrier, which is water or alcohol-water.
What is claimed is:
1. A litter for use with pets which comprises absorbent clay particles
containing an anti-microbial composition prepared by admixing:
A. about 0.2 to 1.0 percent by weight of a diquaternary ammonium
compound of the formula: ##STR2##
X is halogen or hydrogen;
Y is an integer of 1 to 6;
R is hydrogen or an alkyl of 1-7 carbon atoms; and
R.sub.1 is hydrogen or alkyl of 1-7 carbon atoms;
B. about 0.2 to 1.0 percent by weight of a polycarboxylic acid
of less than 10 carbon atoms;
C. about 0.8 to 2.0 percent by weight of at least one phenol compound,
D. the remainder being an aqueous carrier
said phenol and diquaternary compound forming complexes.
2. The litter of claim 1 wherein two phenols are utilized.
3. The litter of claim 2 wherein said phenols are phenol and orthophenyl
4. The litter of claim 1 wherein said diquaternary ammonium compound
is a quaternary alkyl pentamethyl diammonium compound.
5. The litter of claim 4 wherein said compound is N-oleyl-13 propane
6. The litter of claim 1 wherein said polycarboxylic acid is selected
from the group consisting of oxalic acid, maleic acid, succinic
acid and citric acid.
7. The litter of claim 1 wherein said clay is selected from the
group consisting of bentonite, attapulgite, and ground clay.
8. The litter of claim 1 including an odor absorbing or a neutralizing
compound selected from the group consisting of sodium perborate,
sodium phosphate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and mixtures
9. The litter of claim 1 comprising about 1 to 10% by weight of
said anti-microbial composition.
10. In a pet litter comprising clay particles the improvement which
comprises including in said litter an antimicrobial composition
formed by admixing at least about 0.2 percent of succinic acid,
at least about 0.2 percent of N-oleyl-1 3-propane diamine, at least
about 0.2 percent of phenol and at least about 0.2 percent of ortho
phenylphenol in water, said antimicrobial composition consisting
about 1 to 5% by weight of said clay particles.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to cat litter containing a novel
combination of compounds. More particularly, there is provided novel
complexes, which provide antimicrobial and deodorizing in a clay
for use as cat litter. The compounds have a broad spectrum of activity
and are especially useful in killing or deactivating odor-causing
microorganisms, which are in cat litter after use by a pet.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
There is a need to provide a safe and effective means for preventing
bacterial growth in a litter box that can be used on or near a cat's
body without adverse effects on the cat. There is a further need
to provide preparations that will inhibit and/or prevent the growth
of odor causing bacteria. The problem of odors from bacteria can
be especially noticed in litters that are not changed daily.
Cat litters can comprise a variety of clays that may be admixed
with various naturally occurring minerals, clumping agents may be
Previously, hexachlorophene was widely used in many cat litter
compositions to kill bacteria on contact and to prevent growth of
bacteria and fungus. However, the hexachlorophene was used in direct
contact with skin and was absorbable. Prolonged exposure to hexachlorophene
was considered as being hazardous so that it was withdrawn from
use in composition for human and pets.
There is a need to provide hypoallergenic compositions, which are
used on or near pet body parts for preventing bacterial and fungal
growth, which do not adversely affect the cat.
Phenols are the general standard for testing against microorganisms
and parasites, however, free phenols quickly evaporate.
U.S. Pat. No. 4332763 to Hempel et al discloses the use of a
quaternary ammonium polymer obtained by the reaction of dimethyl
sulfate with a mixed polymer of vinyl pyrrolidone and dimethylamino
ethylmethacrylate. However, the quaternary ammonium action of this
polymer degrades in clay and loses its efficacy.
U.S. Pat. No. 3872128 to Byck, which is herein incorporated by
reference, discloses anti-microbial ammonium polymer salts which
are prepared from carboxyl-containing .alpha.-olefin polymers and
quaternary ammonium salts. The polymers are used to form solid polymeric
articles for hospitals and patient care.
U.S. Pat. No. 3404134 to Rees, which is herein incorporated by
reference, discloses a process for crosslinking copolymers of alpha
olefin and alpha, beta ethylenically unsaturated carboxylic acid
units. The copolymers are crosslinked utilizing diamine actions.
None of the diamine actions are stated as being anti-microbial.
Furthermore, the polymers are used to make molded articles and sheet
It is understood that the term "di-quat" as used herein
are biocidally active di quaternary ammonium compounds when ionically
bonded maintain their biological activity.
The term "polycarboxylic acid" is intended to mean a
carboxylic acid compound having 2-4 carboxylic acid groups or anhydrides
which when reacted behave as polycarboxylic acids or salts thereof.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The invention provides novel cat or kitty litter compositions that
contain antimicrobial complexes which are formed between poilycarboxylic
acids, and a diquaternary ammonium compound and phenols. The reactions
between the diquat compounds and the carboxylic acid causes at least
one of the quaternary ammonium groups to coordinate or complex per
molecule of polycarboxylic acid to form a more stable higher molecular
weight compound. These higher molecular weight species possess the
full activity of the smaller unreacted diquat but are more resistant
to degradation in clays. Complexes are also formed by the phenols
with the polycarboxylic acids and the diquats so as provide longer
active life and slow release of the phenols.
Advantageously, the cat litter can contain about 1 to 5% by weight
of the antimicrobial composition of the invention. The litter may
contain other odor absorbents, such as, a basic compound, for example,
an ammonium or alkali metal carbonate, bicarbonate, phosphate or
perborate which are compatible with the complexes.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
In accordance with the present invention there is provided an antimicrobial
cat litter which contains an effective amount of the combinations
of diquaterary ammonium compounds and phenols.
The reaction between these compounds containing the two quaternary
amine sites, the phenol and polycarboxylic acid causes at least
two functional molecules of the diquat to coordinate or complex
(react) per molecule of polycarboxylic acid. This forms a more stable
higher molecular weight molecule. These higher molecular weight
species possess the full activity of the smaller unreacted functional
molecule but are more resistant to degradation in clays. Additional
complexes formed with phenol and the polycarboxylic acids are more
stable and longer lasting since the newly formed molecules have
increased size. The formation of these simple but larger complexes
or compounds has the effect of creating a slower release type of
functional compound. Therefore, a larger lasting effect is achieved
with these complexes without having to use the microbial or other
type of biocidal agent in higher doses or frequent doses.
It is advantageous to employ other odor absorbents or neutralizers
such as a perborate, phosphate, carbonate or bicarbonate. Most preferable
are ammonium carbonate and ammonium bicarbonate which neutralize
A suitable litter composition can be prepared by spraying about
1 to 10% by weight preferably about 2 to 5% of a solution containing
the combination of the polycarboxylic acid diquat complex and phenol
complexes, about 99 to 90% by weight of a solvent, preferably water,
water-alkanol or alkanol. The preferred alkanols are the lower alkanols
such as ethanol or isopropanol, and optionally, an odor absorbent.
Preferably, at least two different phenols are utilized.
The phenols which can be utilized include phenol, ortho phenyl
phenol, meta phenyl phenol, and the halogenated phenols.
Polycarboxylic acids useful in the invention include: succinic,
itaconic, maleic, fumaric, citric, oxalic, and the like. The salts
thereof with anions such as citrates, succinates, fumarates, maleates,
malonates, etc. can be used. Maleic anhydride and other anhydrides
are considered acids for the purposes of the present invention.
Preferably, they contain less than 10 carbon atoms.
The reaction between these functional or useful compounds containing
the diquaternary amine sites and polycarboxylic acids causes at
least two functional molecules to coordinate or complex (react)
per molecule of polycarboxylic acid. This forms a higher molecular
weight molecule. These higher molecular weight species possess the
full activity of the smaller unreacted functional molecule but are
more hypoallergenic. The formation of these simple but larger complexes
has the effect of creating a slower release type of functional compound
and the phenol. Therefore, a larger lasting effect is achieved with
these complexes without having to use the microbial or other type
of biocidal agent in higher doses or frequent doses.
Antimicrobial compounds used in the invention have the general
X is halogen or hydrogen;
Y is an integer of 1 to 6;
R is hydrogen or an alkyl of 1-7 carbon atoms; and
R.sub.1 is hydrogen or alkyl of 1-7 carbon atoms.
Preferred antimicrobial compounds are the quaternary alkyl pentamethyl
A preferred antimicrobial compound which is used in the invention
is sold by Witco Corp. of Dublin, Ohio under the trademark ADOGEN
(N, N, N, N.sup.1N.sup.1 -pentamethyl, N.sup.1 -tallow alkyl-13-propanamine
diammonium chloride, N-tallow pentamethyl propane diammonium chloride
and N-oleyl-13 propane diamine.
Suitable solutions of antimicrobial composition can be prepared
by admixing the following:
About 0.2 to 1.0 percent by weight of a polycarboxyic acid;
About 0.2 to 1.0 percent by weight of a dignat;
About 0.8 to 2.0 percent by weight of at least one phenol compound
and the remainder being water or alkanol-water.
The complex with a polycarboxylic acid and quaternary ammonium
compound of the invention can be generally prepared as follows:
A solution of the polycarboxylic acid in water or water-alcohol
is formed either as the ammonium or sodium salt with ammonium or
sodium hydroxide, respectively. The anti-microbial compound is dissolved
in water or a water-soluble solvent. The molecular ratio of anti-microbial
compound to sodium or ammonium carboxylate groups in the acid or
mixture of acids is adjusted to one or less than one by varying
the quantity of solution to be added to the acid solution. The appropriate
amounts of the two solutions are mixed with stirring. The complex
forms quickly. This complex can be treated with a phenol compound
added directly into the mixture.
Alternatively, the polycarboxylic acid can be directly mixed with
the diquat and the phenol. The litter of the present invention can
be used for other pets, for example, bird cages.
The following examples are illustrative of the invention but are
not to be construed as to limiting the scope thereof in any manner.
The percentages disclosed herein relate to percentages by weight
unless otherwise stated.
A. Preparation of COSMOCIL and citrate complex.
12 g of diammonium citrate is dissolved in 88 g of deionized water.
The solution is added dropwise to 225 g of COSMOCIL CQ (20%) containing
3 drops of Trition CF-10 dispersing aid. The concentration is about
13.8%. 138 g of sodium bicarbonate is dissolved in 1587 g of water
and then added to the solution of the complex. This solution contains
about 1.9% of active cosmocil-citric acid complex.
B. To the solution of part A is added 20 g of phenol with stirring
and 7 g of citric acid.
The resulting composition can be sprayed onto clay for use as cat
Step A. The following ingredients were mixed:
Ingredients Wt % Water 86.6 Succinic acid 2.5 Phenol (90%) 0.5
Adogen 0.4 Ethanol 10.0
A complex is formed between succinic acid and Adogen and the phenol
and Adogen complex.
Step B. To the mixture of Step A were added the following:
Ingredients Wt % O-phenylphenol 0.5
The combination of Step A alone is suitable for use as an antimicrobial
composition. However, the combination of Steps A and B provide a
composition having a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, which
lasts for at least 28 days.
The pH of the mixture was 6.5. The composition of step A and B
were sprayed onto a commercial cat litter (PET STEP) so as to comprise
about 2% by weight of litter. The resulting litter has acceptable
to the cat and resulted in reduced odor after a one-week test.
A. An antimicrobial composition is prepared from the following
Ingredients Wt % Succinic Acid 0.65 Adogen 477 (50%) 1.25 Phenol
0.65 Ortho phenyl phenol 0.65 Water 130.0
The Succinic acid is dissolved in 30 ml of water.
The phenol and orthophenyl phenol are added to 50 ml of water with
stirring. The Cadogen is dissolved in 50 ml of water and added to
the phenol solution. Then the succincic acid solution is added to
phenol solution and stirred at 30*C. until a complete solution is
B. Into a Banbury mixer is added 5 lbs of bentonite clay. The clay
is constantly stirred while spraying the composition from part A
until the clay contains about 2% by weight of the anti-microbial
composition. The clay is continuously mixed until it is free of
The resulting composition can be used as cat litter.