A portable rock crusher (10)is adapted for attachment to a boom
(16) of an earthmoving vehicle (14). The crusher has a hopper (32)
with a material inlet (49) and a material outlet (44) spaced from
the inlet. A pair of jaws (4648) is located within the hopper and
positioned between the inlet and outlet. The jaws are movable relative
to one another to vary the spacing therebetween and an actuator
(68) is provided to control relative movement between the jaws.
Material moving from the inlet to the outlet thereby passes between
the jaws and is crushed upon relative movement of the jaws to provide
an aggregate at the outlet.
What is claimed is:
1. A portable crusher comprising: a hopper having a material inlet
and material outlet spaced from said inlet; a pair of jaws within
said hopper positioned between said inlet and outlet, said jaws
being movable relative to one another, whereby material moving from
said inlet to said outlet passes between said jaws and is crushed
by said jaws, said pair of jaws comprising a first, stationary jaw,
and a second, moveable jaw having a first end pivotally coupled
to said hopper at said inlet and a second end near said outlet coupled
to an actuator via a toggle; said actuator comprising a cylinder
and a piston slidable within said cylinder to affect said relative
movement between said jaws: said toggle comprising a first link
pivotally couple to said piston and said second jaw and a second
link pivotally coupled to said piston and said hopper, wherein movement
of said piston through a predetermined distance past an aligned
position, at which said first link is aligned with said second link,
yields two opening oscillations and one crushing oscillation of
said moveable jaw for each stroke of said actuator, which yields
two different sizes of the jaw outlet for crushed material.
2. The crusher of claim 1 wherein said crusher is adapted for attachment
to an earthmoving vehicle.
3. The crusher of claim 1 wherein said first jaw is further connected
to a biasing means for maintaining separation between said first
and second jaws.
4. The crusher of claim 3 wherein said biasing means comprises
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a portable crushing device for
preparing aggregate and the like.
When developing a remote site such as a mine or quarry, it is necessary
to provide or improve roadways either leading to the site or within
the site itself. Such roadways are necessary to allow the equipment
used ill developing the site to move freely and typically the roads
are made from crushed rock that can be deposited, smoothed and compacted
to provide a serviceable roadway.
However, the very remoteness of or poor access to the site may
make it impractical to have a rock crusher conveniently located
to produce the aggregate for making a roadway. Moreover, a conventional
mobile rock crushing plant may be too large or heavy for use within
the site until such time as the roads have been developed.
In most locations there is an ample supply of blasted stone available
but it may be impractical or uneconomical to have a rock crusher
located at the site. Even if a crusher is available, it is inconvenient
to carry the blasted rock from the mine or quarry, crush it to a
size suitable for building a road, and then transport it back to
the mine for building a roadway.
BRIEF DESCRIPTIONS OF DOCUMENTS D1 AND D2
In U.S. Pat. No. 4441415 there is taught a crusher adapted for
crushing or flattening scrap metal and, particularly, auto body
shells. The crusher is mounted on a tractor and includes a pair
of crushing jaws. One of the jaws is stationary while the other
is pivotally mounted with the pivot point positioned at the outlet
of the crusher. The relative motion of the jaws is accomplished
by means of hydraulic cylinders acting directly oil the moving jaw.
This reference does not teach a crusher for aggregate material.
U.S. Pat. No. 3959897 teaches a rock crusher adapted for mounting
on a dredging device. The crusher includes a pair of jaws, one being
stationary and the other pivotally mounted and acted upon by a hydraulic
cylinder. The pivot point for tile moving jaw is located near the
outlet of the crusher and the cylinder acts through an eccentric
shaft. It is therefore an object of the present invention to obviate
or mitigate the above disadvantages.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
In general terms, the present invention provides a portable crusher
for attachment to a boom of an earthmoving vehicle. The crusher
has a hopper with a material inlet and a material outlet spaced
from the inlet. A pair of jaws is located within the hopper and
positioned between the inlet and outlet. The jaws are movable relative
to one another to vary the spacing therebetween and an actuator
is provided to control relative movement between the jaws. Material
moving from the inlet to the outlet thereby passes between the jaws
and is crushed upon relative movement of the jaws to provide an
aggregate at the outlet.
BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
Preferably the actuator is a hydraulic actuator and one of the
jaws is fixed while the other may pivot relative to the hopper under
the control of the actuator.
It is also preferred that the jaws are biased apart and that the
biasing is provided by a mechanical spring.
By providing a crusher that may be attached to the boom of an earthmoving
vehicle, it is possible to transport the crusher prior to improvement
of the roads to the location at which the raw materials are available
for crushing into aggregate. Moreover, the feed of material between
the inlet and outlet may be controlled by operation of the boom-leveling
mechanism and the hopper may be utilized to transport the crushed
material if convenient. Thus, the invention provides a portable
crusher comprising: a hopper having a material inlet and a material
outlet spaced from the inlet; a pair of jaws within the hopper positioned
between the inlet and outlet, the jaws being moveable relative to
one another, whereby material moving from the inlet to the outlet
passes between the jaws and is crushed; and an actuator to effect
the relative movement between the jaws; wherein the pair of jaws
comprise a first, moveable jaw, connected to the actuator, and a
second, stationary jaw, the first jaw having a first end at the
inlet and a second end at the outlet;
the improvement comprising the first end of the first jaw being
pivotally connected to the hopper and the second end of the first
jaw being connected to the actuator.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
Embodiments of the invention will now be described by way of example
only with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which
FIG. 1 is a side elevation of a hydraulic crusher mounted on a
FIG. 2 is a section of the crusher shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a perspective view of a jaw utilized in the crusher shown
in FIGS. 1 and 2;
FIG. 4 is a side view similar to FIG. 2 of an alternative embodiment
FIG. 5 is a side view similar to FIG. 1 of a still further embodiment
of the crusher; and
FIG. 6 is a side view similar to FIG. 1 of a yet further embodiment
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
Referring therefore to FIG. 1 a hydraulic crusher 10 is connected
to a boom assembly 12 of a wheeled earthmoving vehicle 14. The boom
assembly 12 includes a pair of laterally spaced booms 16 pivotally
connected to towers 18 and movable about the pivot point with the
towers by means of lift cylinders 20. The boom assembly 12 also
includes a leveling linkage 22 comprising a leveling cylinder 24
connected to a pair of links 26 28. The boom assembly 12 and wheeled
vehicle 14 are conventional and well known in the earthmoving field
and need not be described in further detail. It will of course be
understood that other configurations of wheeled vehicle or tracked
vehicle may be utilized to support the crusher 10.
The crusher 10 is provided with mounting points 28 30 for connection
through respective pins to the lift arms, or booms, 16 and link
26. In configuration, the mounting points 28 30 correspond to those
of a conventional bucket such as may be used with the boom assembly
12 so that the vehicle 14 may be used with the crusher 10 or with
a conventional bucket assembly.
Referring to FIG. 2 the crusher assembly 10 comprises a hopper
generally indicated at 32 and having a pair of laterally spaced
side walls 34 interconnected by a floor 36. The floor 36 projects
forwardly from the side walls 34 to provide a tapered lip 38 to
facilitate ingress of material into the hopper 32. The side walls
34 are also connected at the upper rear edge by a rear wall 40 and
a top wall 42. The end wall 40 terminates prior to the floor 36
to provide a transverse elongate outlet 44.
A pair of jaws 46 48 is located within the hopper 32 with the
lower jaw 46 secured through bolts 50 to the floor 36. The jaw 48
is secured to a transverse plate 52 which extends between a pair
of arms 54. The arms 54 are located adjacent respective side walls
34 and are pivotally mounted to the side walls on pins 56. The jaw
48 may therefore pivot about the pins 56 toward and away from the
jaw 46. The forward end of the jaws 46 48 are thus spaced apart
to define an inlet 49 that is aligned with but spaced from the outlet
The jaws 46 48 are shown in more detail in FIG. 3 and are formed
with a ridged upper surface 58 having triangular teeth 60 which
progressively increase in height and merge from the front to rear.
The form of the upper surface 58 is merely exemplary and is a standard
form of crusher jaw such as that made by ESCO Canada Ltd. and therefore
need not be described in further detail. The bolts 50 are arranged
on standard centers so that different forms of crusher jaw can be
utilized depending upon the material to be crushed.
Referring once again to FIG. 2 each of the arms 54 has a bracket
62 on the side opposite to the jaws 48 and which extends rearwardly.
The bracket 62 has a projecting lug 64 which receives one end of
a coil spring 66. The opposite end of the coil spring 66 is supported
upon a transverse bar 67 which extends between the side walls 34.
The spring 66 is a compression spring which acts to bias the arm
54 about pin 56 to attain the maximum spacing between the jaws 46
Relative movement between the jaws 46 48 is controlled by an actuator
generally indicated at 68. The actuator 68 includes a hydraulic
cylinder 70 and a piston 72 slidable within the cylinder 70. Hydraulic
fluid is supplied to a chamber 74 defined between the piston 72
and cylinder 70 through a pipe 76 from a convenient service location
upon the vehicle 14. Flow through the pipe 76 is controlled by a
valve assembly that causes chamber 74 to expand upon admission of
fluid or contract under the influence of the spring 66 upon egress
of fluid. The piston 72 has a ball 76 formed at one end that engages
a socket 78 mounted on the plate 52. The opposite end of the actuator
68 is domed as indicated at 79 and supported in a part-cylindrical
recess 80 formed in a cross-bar 82 extending between the back plate
40 and top plate 42. The ball 76 and socket 78 together with the
dome 79 and recess 80 permit relative rotational movement as the
arm 54 swings about the pin 56 to inhibit bending stresses upon
In operation, the attitude of the crusher 10 is adjusted through
the boom assembly 12 such that the floor 36 is flush with the ground
upon which a stockpile of stones is located. The vehicle 14 is advanced
so that material enters the hopper 32 through an inlet 49 defined
between the jaw 48 the side plates 34 and the floor 36. The boom
assembly 12 is then crowded to rotate the crusher about the pivot
points 28 of the boom 16 so that the stones indicated generally
as S fall between the jaws 4648. Although some of the stone S is
sufficiently small to pass between the jaws 46 48 and out of the
outlet 44 the majority is held between the jaws 46 48. The hydraulic
fluid is then supplied through the pipe 76 to expand the chamber
74 and pivot the arm 54 about the pin 56. The jaws move toward one
another and crush the stones S located between the jaw causing them
to shatter into smaller fragments. Those fragments then pass between
the jaws and through the outlet 44 to provide a supply of crushed
The actuator 68 is cycled between extended and retracted positions
on a regular basis, typically 60 Hz to provide a continuous crushing
operation. The stones S thus feed from the hopper 32 between the
jaws 46 48 and are fragmented to pass out of the outlet 44.
The spring 66 opposes rotational movement of the arm 54 under the
influence of the actuator 68 and thus returns the arm to the position
in which the jaws 46 48 are separated. This enables the actuator
68 to be single acting and a relatively simply cycling valve used
to supply fluid through the pipe 76.
Once the stone S has been crushed, the vehicle 14 may be repositioned
to acquire additional stones and crush them in a similar manner.
In the event that a stone S becomes stuck within the jaws, the crowd
cylinder 24 may be extended to allow the stone S to drop out of
the hopper 32.
It will be seen therefore that by mounting the crusher assembly
on the boom 16 it is possible to transport the crusher to a convenient
location to perform crushing operations. The provision of the spaced
jaws 46 48 between the inlet 49 and outlet 44 of the hopper 32
enables the stones to be crushed on a continuous basis and to utilize
gravity to induce the flow through the crusher jaws. Upon completion
of the crushing operation, the hopper 32 may be utilized to transport
the crushed material to an appropriate site or may be used to compact
and smooth the crushed material in a manner similar to that with
a conventional bucket assembly. It will be appreciated that the
mounting points may be chosen to conform to one of a standard configuration
of machine, for example. the hopper can be configured to be used
with a 360.degree. Excavator or with a rear mounted backhoe by suitable
positioning of the mounting points.
A further embodiment of crusher is shown in FIG. 4 in which like
components will be identified with like reference numerals with
a suffix "a" added for clarity. In the embodiment of FIG.
4 the crusher 10a has a lower jaw 46a and an upper jaw 48a to direct
material from an inlet 49a to outlet 44a in the rear wall of the
hopper 32a. Spring 66a extends between a bracket 62a on the arm
54a and a transverse bar 90. The spring 66a is a tension spring
having hooked ends secured in eyes 92 on the bracket 62a and bar
90 respectively. Rotation of the arm 54a about the pin 56a will
cause extension of the spring 66a to bias the arm away from the
lower jaw 46a.
An actuator 68a is located within the hopper 32a and has a piston
72a with a ball 76a received in socket 78a. Fluid is supplied to
a chamber 74a from a reciprocating pump generally indicated at 94.
The pump 94 has a piston 96 slidable within a cylinder 98 which
is directly connected to the chamber 74a. The piston 96 is connected
to a connecting rod 100. The connecting rod is pivotally secured
to a crank 102 which is secured to an output shaft of a hydraulic
motor 104. The motor 104 can be of any convenient form and receives
hydraulic fluid through pipe 76a from a service on the vehicle.
The operation of the crusher 10a is similar to that described above
with cyclic extension and retraction of the actuator 68a being induced
by flow of fluid between the interconnected chambers 98 and 74a
as the piston 96 reciprocates under the control of the crank 102.
The cylinder 98 is sized to produce the requisite stroke for the
piston 72a and produce the oscillatory motion of the arm 54a about
the pin 56a.
A further embodiment is shown in FIG. 5 in which like reference
numerals will again be utilized to denote like components with the
suffix "b" added for clarity. The crusher 10b has a pair
of jaws 46b, 48b with the upper jaw 48b mounted on arm 54b to pivot
about the pin 56b. The arm 54b is biased away from the jaw 46b by
a coil spring 66b acting through a rod 110. The rod 110 extends
parallel with the back wall 40b and is pivotally connected by pin
112 to a tongue 114 on the arm 54b. The rod 110 passes through a
hole formed in a bracket 114 that is secured to the rear wall 40b
and the spring 66b located between the bracket 114 and a cap 116
threaded onto the rod 110. Pivotal movement of the arm 54b will
thus cause compression of the spring 56b between the bracket 114
and the cap 116.
Rotation of the arm 54b is induced through a toggle mechanism generally
indicated at 120 connected to an actuator 68b. The toggle mechanism
120 includes a pair of links 122 124 which are pivoted by pins
126 to opposite sides of a boss 128. The opposite end of link 122
is secured through a pin 130 to a bracket 132 on the cross bar 80b
at the vertex of the hopper 32b. The link 124 is similarly connected
through pin 134 and plate 136 to the arm 54b.
The boss 128 is secured to the piston 72b of the actuator 68b which
in turn is slidable within the cylinder 70b. Fluid to the actuator
68b is supplied through control pipe 76b from suitable valving to
cause reciprocation of the piston 72b within the cylinder 70b.
With the links 122 124 aligned, the jaw 48b is closest to the
jaw 46b. As the piston rod 72b reciprocates, the boss 128 is displaced
laterally causing the links 122 124 to pivot about their respective
pin connections and thus cause the arm 54b to rotate about the pin
56b. A crushing action is thus provided by the cyclic reciprocation
of the piston rod within the cylinder 70b to reduce the stone S
to an aggregate.
The stroke of the actuator 68b may be adjusted so that at one limit
the links 122 124 are aligned as shown in FIG. 5 and at the other
limit, the boss is displaced as shown by the chain-dotted lines
in FIG. 5. An alternative control is to permit the stroke of the
actuator 68b to move the links 122 124 past the aligned position
so that the boss 128 is moved to either side of the position indicated
in chain dot lines. As the links move over center, the jaws will
move apart. As a result, two oscillations of the jaws will occur
for each stroke of the cylinder.
The initial spacing between the jaws 46b and 48b can be adjusted
by means of spacers indicated at 138 located beneath the plate 136
with a corresponding adjustment made to the position of the cup
116 on the rod 110. In this way, different nominal sized aggregate
can be produced.
A further embodiment is shown in FIG. 6 in which like components
will be identified with like reference numerals with the suffix
"c" added for clarity. In the embodiment shown in FIG.
6 actuator 68c is in the form of a double-acting hydraulic motor
having a piston 72c and a cylinder 70c. The actuator 68c acts directly
between the bracket 80b and the arm 54c. The hopper 32c is provided
with a front wall 140 that extends from the upper apex of the hopper
32c downwardly beyond the pivot pin 56c. As such, the front wall
140 shields the actuator 68c.
Oscillation of the jaws 46c and 48c is controlled by the actuator
68c which is caused to reciprocate cyclically by fluid supplied
from a suitable valve through the pipes 76c. The cycling of the
actuator 68 can be obtained using one of a number of conventional
cycling operations. For example, a spring-biased solenoid-operated
valve can be utilized with drive to the solenoid switch by proximity
sensors associated with the piston rod or by using a mechanical
linkage connected between a reversing valve and the upper jaw 48
to reverse flow to the actuator.
In each of the above arrangements, the typical minimum spacing
between the jaws 46c, 48c is in the order of 2 inches although spacings
of up to 3 or more inches can be contemplated where relatively large
aggregate is required. Typically the displacement of the jaws between
maximum and minimum spacing would be in the order of 1/2-1 inch
to provide the requisite crushing action. As noted above, the actuator
68 produces an oscillatory motion in the order of 60 Hz through
suitable valving. Using a 10" diameter cylinder, adequate crushing
force is obtained at 500 psi.
It will be seen therefore that by providing a compact mechanism
located within a hopper that may be attached to an earthmoving vehicle,
a portable crusher is provided that can be used at remote locations
to facilitate the production of aggregate.
Although the invention has been described with reference to certain
specific embodiments, various modifications thereof will be apparent
to those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and
scope of the invention as outlined in the claims appended hereto.