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Molecular Sieve Patent

 

Partial oxidation using molecular sieve SSZ-71

Molecular sieve abstract

The present invention relates to new molecular sieve SSZ-71 prepared using a N-benzyl-14-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane cation as a structure-directing agent, methods for synthesizing SSZ-71 and processes employing SSZ-71 in a catalyst.

Molecular sieve claims

What is claimed is:

1. A process for oxidation of hydrocarbons comprising contacting said hydrocarbon with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a titanium-containing molecular sieve for a time and at a temperature effective to oxidize said hydrocarbon, wherein the titanium-containing molecular sieve is a molecular sieve produced by the method comprising: (1) preparing an as-synthesized molecular sieve having a composition, as synthesized and in the anhydrous state, in terms of mole ratios as follows: YO.sub.2/TiO.sub.2 15 .infin. M.sub.2/n/YO.sub.2 0 0.03 Q/YO.sub.2 0.02 0.05 wherein Y is silicon, germanium or a mixture thereof; M is an alkali metal cation, alkaline earth metal cation or mixtures thereof; n is the valence of M (i.e., 1 or 2); and Q is a N-benzyl-14-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane cation, the as-synthesized molecular sieve having the X-ray diffraction lines of Table I; and (2) thermally treating the as-synthesized molecular sieve at a temperature and for a time sufficient to remove the N-benzyl-14-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane cation from the molecular sieve.

2. A process for epoxidation of an olefin comprising contacting said olefin with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a titanium-containing molecular sieve for a time and at a temperature effective to epoxidize said olefin, wherein the titanium-containing molecular sieve is a molecular sieve produced by the method comprising: (1) preparing an as-synthesized molecular sieve having a composition, as synthesized and in the anhydrous state, in terms of mole ratios as follows: YO.sub.2/TiO.sub.2 15 .infin. M.sub.2/n/YO.sub.2 0 0.03 Q/YO.sub.2 0.02 0.05 wherein Y is silicon, germanium or a mixture thereof; M is an alkali metal cation, alkaline earth metal cation or mixtures thereof; n is the valence of M (i.e., 1 or 2); and Q is a N-benzyl-14-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane cation, the as-synthesized molecular sieve having the X-ray diffraction lines of Table I; and (2) thermally treating the as-synthesized molecular sieve at a temperature and for a time sufficient to remove the N-benzyl-14-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane cation from the molecular sieve.

3. A process for oxidizing cyclohexane comprising contacting said cyclohexane with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a titanium-containing molecular sieve for a time and at a temperature effective to oxidize said cyclohexane, wherein the titanium-containing molecular sieve is a molecular sieve produced by the method comprising: (1) preparing an as-synthesized molecular sieve having a composition, as synthesized and in the anhydrous state, in terms of mole ratios as follows: YO.sub.2/TiO.sub.2 15 .infin. M.sub.2/n/YO.sub.2 0 0.03 Q/YO.sub.2 0.02 0.05 wherein Y is silicon, germanium or a mixture thereof; M is an alkali metal cation, alkaline earth metal cation or mixtures thereof; n is the valence of M (i.e., 1 or 2); and Q is a N-benzyl-14-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane cation, the as-synthesized molecular sieve having the X-ray diffraction lines of Table I; and (2) thermally treating the as-synthesized molecular sieve at a temperature and for a time sufficient to remove the N-benzyl-14-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane cation from the molecular sieve.

4. A catalytic oxidation process comprising contacting under oxidation conditions (1) a reactant which is catalytically oxidizable in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, (2) aqueous hydrogen peroxide and (3) a catalytically effective amount of an oxidation catalyst comprising a molecular sieve produced by the method comprising: (1) preparing an as-synthesized molecular sieve having a composition, as synthesized and in the anhydrous state, in terms of mole ratios as follows: YO.sub.2/TiO.sub.2 15 .infin. M.sub.2/n/YO.sub.2 0 0.03 Q/YO.sub.2 0.02 0.05 wherein Y is silicon, germanium or a mixture thereof; M is an alkali metal cation, alkaline earth metal cation or mixtures thereof; n is the valence of M (i.e., 1 or 2); and Q is a N-benzyl-14-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane cation, the as-synthesized molecular sieve having the X-ray diffraction lines of Table I; and (2) thermally treating the as-synthesized molecular sieve at a temperature and for a time sufficient to remove the N-benzyl-14-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane cation from the molecular sieve.

5. The process of claim 4 wherein the oxidizable reactant is a hydrocarbon.

6. A process for the epoxidation of an olefin comprising contacting said olefin with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a catalyst comprising a molecular sieve produced by the method comprising: (1) preparing an as-synthesized molecular sieve having a composition, as synthesized and in the anhydrous state, in terms of mole ratios as follows: YO.sub.2/TiO.sub.2 15 .infin. M.sub.2/n/YO.sub.2 0 0.03 Q/YO.sub.2 0.02 0.05 wherein Y is silicon, germanium or a mixture thereof; M is an alkali metal cation, alkaline earth metal cation or mixtures thereof; n is the valence of M (i.e., 1 or 2); and Q is a N-benzyl-14-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane cation, the as-synthesized molecular sieve having the X-ray diffraction lines of Table I; and (2) thermally treating the as-synthesized molecular sieve at a temperature and for a time sufficient to remove the N-benzyl-14-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane cation from the molecular sieve.

Molecular sieve description

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to new molecular sieve SSZ-71 a method for preparing SSZ-71 using a N-benzyl-14-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane cation as a structure directing agent and the use of SSZ-71 in catalysts for, e.g., hydrocarbon conversion reactions.

2. State of the Art

Because of their unique sieving characteristics, as well as their catalytic properties, crystalline molecular sieves and zeolites are especially useful in applications such as hydrocarbon conversion, gas drying and separation. Although many different crystalline molecular sieves have been disclosed, there is a continuing need for new zeolites with desirable properties for gas separation and drying, hydrocarbon and chemical conversions, and other applications. New zeolites may contain novel internal pore architectures, providing enhanced selectivities in these processes.

Crystalline aluminosilicates are usually prepared from aqueous reaction mixtures containing alkali or alkaline earth metal oxides, silica, and alumina. Crystalline borosilicates are usually prepared under similar reaction conditions except that boron is used in place of aluminum. By varying the synthesis conditions and the composition of the reaction mixture, different zeolites can often be formed.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is directed to a family of molecular sieves with unique properties, referred to herein as "molecular sieve SSZ-71" or simply "SSZ-71". Preferably, SSZ-71 is in its silicate, zincosilicate, aluminosilicate, titanosilicate, germanosilicate, vanadosilicate, ferrosilicate or borosilicate form. The term "silicate" refers to a molecular sieve having a high mole ratio of silicon oxide relative to aluminum oxide, preferably a mole ratio greater than 100 including molecular sieves comprised entirely of silicon oxide. As used herein, the term "zincosilicate" refers to a molecular sieve containing both zinc oxide and silicon oxide. The term "aluminosilicate" refers to a molecular sieve containing both aluminum oxide and silicon oxide and the term "borosilicate" refers to a molecular sieve containing oxides of both boron and silicon.

In accordance with the present invention, there is provided a process for oxidation of hydrocarbons comprising contacting said hydrocarbon with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a titanium-containing molecular sieve for a time and at a temperature effective to oxidize said hydrocarbon, wherein the titanium-containing molecular sieve is a molecular sieve produced by the method comprising: (1) preparing an as-synthesized molecular sieve having a composition, as synthesized and in the anhydrous state, in terms of mole ratios as follows: YO.sub.2/TiO.sub.2 15 .infin. M.sub.2/n/YO.sub.2 0 0.03 Q/YO.sub.2 0.02 0.05 wherein Y is silicon, germanium or a mixture thereof; M is an alkali metal cation, alkaline earth metal cation or mixtures thereof; n is the valence of M (i.e., 1 or 2); and Q is a N-benzyl-14-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane cation, the as-synthesized molecular sieve having the X-ray diffraction lines of Table I; and (2) thermally treating the as-synthesized molecular sieve at a temperature and for a time sufficient to remove the N-benzyl-14-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane cation from the molecular sieve.

There is further provided in accordance with this invention a process for epoxidation of an olefin comprising contacting said olefin with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a titanium-containing molecular sieve for a time and at a temperature effective to epoxidize said olefin, wherein the titanium-containing molecular sieve is a molecular sieve produced by the method comprising: (1) preparing an as-synthesized molecular sieve having a composition, as synthesized and in the anhydrous state, in terms of mole ratios as follows: YO.sub.2/TiO.sub.2 15 .infin. M.sub.2/n/YO.sub.2 0 0.03 Q/YO.sub.2 0.02 0.05 wherein Y is silicon, germanium or a mixture thereof; M is an alkali metal cation, alkaline earth metal cation or mixtures thereof; n is the valence of M (i.e., 1 or 2); and Q is a N-benzyl-14-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane cation, the as-synthesized molecular sieve having the X-ray diffraction lines of Table I; and (2) thermally treating the as-synthesized molecular sieve at a temperature and for a time sufficient to remove the N-benzyl-14-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane cation from the molecular sieve.

Further provided in accordance with the present invention is a process for oxidizing cyclohexane comprising contacting said cyclohexane with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a titanium-containing molecular sieve for a time and at a temperature effective to oxidize said cyclohexane, wherein the titanium-containing molecular sieve is a molecular sieve produced by the method comprising: (1) preparing an as-synthesized molecular sieve having a composition, as synthesized and in the anhydrous state, in terms of mole ratios as follows: YO.sub.2/TiO.sub.2 15 .infin. M.sub.2/n/YO.sub.2 0 0.03 Q/YO.sub.2 0.02 0.05 wherein Y is silicon, germanium or a mixture thereof; M is an alkali metal cation, alkaline earth metal cation or mixtures thereof; n is the valence of M (i.e., 1 or 2); and Q is a N-benzyl-14-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane cation, the as-synthesized molecular sieve having the X-ray diffraction lines of Table I; and (2) thermally treating the as-synthesized molecular sieve at a temperature and for a time sufficient to remove the N-benzyl-14-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane cation from the molecular sieve.

The present invention also provides a catalytic oxidation process comprising contacting under oxidation conditions (1) a reactant which is catalytically oxidizable in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, (2) aqueous hydrogen peroxide and (3) a catalytically effective amount of an oxidation catalyst comprising a molecular sieve produced by the method comprising: (1) preparing an as-synthesized molecular sieve having a composition, as synthesized and in the anhydrous state, in terms of mole ratios as follows: YO.sub.2/TiO.sub.2 15 .infin. M.sub.2/n/YO.sub.2 0 0.03 Q/YO.sub.2 0.02 0.05 wherein Y is silicon, germanium or a mixture thereof; M is an alkali metal cation, alkaline earth metal cation or mixtures thereof; n is the valence of M (i.e., 1 or 2); and Q is a N-benzyl-14-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane cation, the as-synthesized molecular sieve having the X-ray diffraction lines of Table I; and (2) thermally treating the as-synthesized molecular sieve at a temperature and for a time sufficient to remove the N-benzyl-14-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane cation from the molecular sieve.

The present invention also provides a process for the epoxidation of an olefin comprising contacting said olefin with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a catalyst comprising a molecular sieve produced by the method comprising: (1) preparing an as-synthesized molecular sieve having a composition, as synthesized and in the anhydrous state, in terms of mole ratios as follows: YO.sub.2/TiO.sub.2 15 .infin. M.sub.2/n/YO.sub.2 0 0.03 Q/YO.sub.2 0.02 0.05 wherein Y is silicon, germanium or a mixture thereof; M is an alkali metal cation, alkaline earth metal cation or mixtures thereof; n is the valence of M (i.e., 1 or 2); and Q is a N-benzyl-14-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane cation, the as-synthesized molecular sieve having the X-ray diffraction lines of Table I; (2) thermally treating the as-synthesized molecular sieve at a temperature and for a time sufficient to remove the N-benzyl-14-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane cation from the molecular sieve.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The present invention comprises a family of molecular sieves designated herein "molecular sieve SSZ-71" or simply "SSZ-71". In preparing SSZ-71 a N-benzyl-14-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane cation (referred to herein as "benzyl DABCO") is used as a structure directing agent ("SDA"), also known as a crystallization template. The SDA useful for making SSZ-71 has the following structure:

##STR00001##

The SDA cation is associated with an anion (X.sup.-) which may be any anion that is not detrimental to the formation of the molecular sieve. Representative anions include halogen, e.g., fluoride, chloride, bromide and iodide, hydroxide, acetate, sulfate, tetrafluoroborate, carboxylate, and the like. Hydroxide is the most preferred anion.

Benzyl DABCO and a method for making it are disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5653956 issued Aug. 5 1997 to Zones.

SSZ-71 is prepared from a reaction mixture having the composition shown in Table A below.

TABLE-US-00001 TABLE A Reaction Mixture Typical Preferred YO.sub.2/WO.sub.d >15 >30 OH--/YO.sub.2 0.10 0.50 0.20 0.30 Q/YO.sub.2 0.05 0.50 0.10 0.20 M.sub.2/n/YO.sub.2 0 0.40 0.10 0.25 H.sub.2O/YO.sub.2 10 80 15 45

where Y is silicon, germanium or a mixture thereof; W is zinc, titanium or mixtures thereof; d is 1 or 2 (i.e., d is 1 when W is divalent or 2 when W is tetravalent); M is an alkali metal cation, alkaline earth metal cation or mixtures thereof; n is the valence of M (i.e., 1 or 2); and Q is a N-benzyl-14-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane cation.

In practice, SSZ-71 is prepared by a process comprising:

(a) preparing an aqueous solution containing sources of at least one oxide capable of forming a molecular sieve and a benzyl DABCO cation having an anionic counterion which is not detrimental to the formation of SSZ-71;

(b) maintaining the aqueous solution under conditions sufficient to form SSZ-71; and

(c) recovering the SSZ-71.

SSZ-71 can be prepared as a zincosilicate or titanosilicate. However, once the SSZ-71 is made, the zinc and/or titanium can be replaced with other metals by techniques well known in the art. Accordingly, SSZ-71 may comprise the molecular sieve and the SDA in combination with metallic and non-metallic oxides bonded in tetrahedral coordination through shared oxygen atoms to form a cross-linked three dimensional crystal structure. The metallic and non-metallic oxides comprise one or a combination of oxides of (1) a first tetravalent element(s), and (2) one or a combination of a divalent element(s), trivalent element(s), pentavalent element(s), second tetravalent element(s) different from the first tetravalent element(s) or mixture thereof. The first tetravalent element(s) is preferably selected from the group consisting of silicon, germanium and combinations thereof. More preferably, the first tetravalent element is silicon. The divalent element, trivalent element, pentavalent element and second tetravalent element (which is different from the first tetravalent element) is preferably selected from the group consisting of zinc, aluminum, gallium, iron, boron, titanium, indium, vanadium and combinations thereof. More preferably, the divalent or trivalent element or second tetravalent element is zinc, aluminum, titanium or boron.

Silicon can be added as silicon oxide or Si(OC.sub.2H.sub.5).sub.4. Zinc can be added as a zinc salt such as zinc acetate. Titanium can be added as Ti(OC.sub.2H.sub.5).sub.4.

A source zeolite reagent may provide a source of metals. In most cases, the source zeolite also provides a source of silica. The source zeolite may also be used as a source of silica, with additional silicon added using, for example, the conventional sources listed above. Use of a source zeolite reagent is described in U.S. Pat. No. 5225179 issued Jul. 6 1993 to Nakagawa entitled "Method of Making Molecular Sieves", the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.

Typically, an alkali metal hydroxide and/or an alkaline earth metal hydroxide, such as the hydroxide of sodium, potassium, lithium, cesium, rubidium, calcium, strontium, barium and magnesium, is used in the reaction mixture; however, this component can be omitted so long as the equivalent basicity is maintained. The SDA may be used to provide hydroxide ion. Thus, it may be beneficial to ion exchange, for example, the halide to hydroxide ion, thereby reducing or eliminating the alkali metal hydroxide quantity required. The alkali metal cation or alkaline earth cation may be part of the as-synthesized material, in order to balance valence electron charges therein.

The reaction mixture is maintained at an elevated temperature until the crystals of the SSZ-71 are formed. The hydrothermal crystallization is usually conducted under autogenous pressure, at a temperature between 100.degree. C. and 200.degree. C., preferably between 135.degree. C. and 160.degree. C. The crystallization period is typically greater than 1 day and preferably from about 3 days to about 20 days.

Optionally, the molecular sieve is prepared using mild stirring or agitation.

During the hydrothermal crystallization step, the SSZ-71 crystals can be allowed to nucleate spontaneously from the reaction mixture. The use of SSZ-71 or SSZ-42 (disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5653956 issued Aug. 5 1997 to Zones) crystals as seed material can be advantageous in decreasing the time necessary for complete crystallization to occur. In addition, seeding can lead to an increased purity of the product obtained by promoting the nucleation and/or formation of SSZ-71 over any undesired phases. When used as seeds, as-synthesized SSZ-71 or SSZ-42 crystals (containing the SDA) are added in an amount between 0.1 and 10% of the weight of first tetravalent element oxide, e.g. silica, used in the reaction mixture.

Once the molecular sieve crystals have formed, the solid product is separated from the reaction mixture by standard mechanical separation techniques such as filtration. The crystals are water-washed and then dried, e.g., at 90.degree. C. to 150.degree. C. for from 8 to 24 hours, to obtain the as-synthesized SSZ-71 crystals. The drying step can be performed at atmospheric pressure or under vacuum.

SSZ-71 as prepared has a mole ratio of an oxide selected from silicon oxide, germanium oxide and mixtures thereof to an oxide selected from zinc oxide, titanium oxide and mixtures thereof greater than about 15. SSZ-71 further has a composition, as synthesized (i.e., prior to calcination of the SSZ-71) and in the anhydrous state, in terms of mole ratios, shown in Table B below.

TABLE-US-00002 TABLE B As-Synthesized SSZ-71 YO.sub.2/WO.sub.d >15 M.sub.2/n/YO.sub.2 0 0.03 Q/YO.sub.2 0.02 0.05

where Y, W, d, M, n and Q are as defined above.

SSZ-71 can be made with a mole ratio of YO.sub.2/WO.sub.d of .infin., i.e., there is essentially no WO.sub.d present in the SSZ-71. In this case, the SSZ-71 would be an all-silica material or a germanosilicate. If SSZ-71 is prepared as a zincosilicate, the zinc can be removed and replaced with metal atoms by techniques known in the art. See, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 6117411 issued Sep. 12 2000 to Takewaki et al. Metals such as aluminum, gallium, iron, boron, titanium, indium, vanadium and mixtures thereof may be added in this manner.

It is believed that SSZ-71 is comprised of a new framework structure or topology which is characterized by its X-ray diffraction pattern. SSZ-71 as-synthesized, has a structure whose X-ray powder diffraction pattern exhibit the characteristic lines shown in Table I and Table II and is thereby distinguished from other molecular sieves. The XRD data shown in Table I and IA was obtained from a sample of SSZ-71 prepared in the presence of sodium hydroxide. The XRD data shown in Table II and IIA was obtained from a sample of SSZ-71 prepared in the presence of strontium hydroxide.

TABLE-US-00003 TABLE I As-Synthesized Zn-SSZ-71 Prepared with NaOH 2 Theta.sup.(a) d-spacing (Angstroms) Relative Intensity.sup.(b) 5.64 15.7 S 8.65 10.2 S 13.65 6.49 M 17.06 5.20 M 20.32 4.37 M 20.64 4.30 VS 23.12 3.85 M 24.08 3.70 VS 26.15 3.41 M 26.57 3.35 M .sup.(a).+-.0.15 .sup.(b)The X-ray patterns provided are based on a relative intensity scale in which the strongest line in the X-ray pattern is assigned a value of 100: W(weak) is less than 20; M(medium) is between 20 and 40; S(strong) is between 40 and 60; VS(very strong) is greater than 60.

Table IA below shows the X-ray powder diffraction lines for as-synthesized Zn-SSZ-71 prepared with NaOH including actual relative intensities.

TABLE-US-00004 TABLE IA 2 Theta.sup.(a) d-spacing (Angstroms) Relative Intensity (%) 5.64 15.7 60 8.65 10.2 57 11.40 7.8 5 11.95 7.4 7 13.11 6.75 7 13.65 6.49 21 14.34 6.18 5 17.06 5.20 29 17.84 4.97 4 18.23 4.87 10 18.84 4.71 12 19.49 4.55 18 20.32 4.37 37 20.64 4.30 100 21.55 4.12 16 22.03 4.03 16 23.12 3.85 34 24.08 3.70 62 25.29 3.52 20 25.52 3.49 20 26.15 3.41 29 26.57 3.35 33 27.15 3.28 9 28.55 3.13 18 30.00 2.98 8 30.80 2.90 5 31.68 2.82 10 32.45 2.76 5 33.16 2.70 7 34.92 2.57 11 35.61 2.52 14 36.90 2.44 12 38.82 2.32 14 40.26 2.24 12 .sup.(a).+-.0.15

TABLE-US-00005 TABLE II As-Synthesized Zn-SSZ-71 prepared with Sr(OH).sub.2 2 Theta.sup.(a) d-spacing (Angstroms) Relative Intensity.sup.(b) 5.65 15.6 VS 8.69 10.2 VS 16.99 5.22 S 19.52 4.55 M 20.60 4.31 VS 23.13 3.85 M 24.01 3.71 S 24.23 3.67 M 26.14 3.41 M 26.52 3.36 M .sup.(a).+-.0.15 .sup.(b)The X-ray patterns provided are based on a relative intensity scale in which the strongest line in the X-ray pattern is assigned a value of 100: W(weak) is less than 20; M(medium) is between 20 and 40; S(strong) is between 40 and 60; VS(very strong) is greater than 60.

Table IIA below shows the X-ray powder diffraction lines for as-synthesized SSZ-71(Zn-SSZ-71 prepared with Sr(OH).sub.2) including actual relative intensities.

TABLE-US-00006 TABLE IIA 2 Theta.sup.(a) d-spacing (Angstroms) Relative Intensity (%) 5.65 15.6 84 8.69 10.2 67 11.36 7.8 5 11.94 7.4 5 13.17 6.7 7 13.68 6.5 20 14.34 6.18 6 15.31 5.79 2 16.99 5.22 42 18.24 4.86 8 18.79 4.72 17 19.52 4.55 26 20.34 4.37 23 20.60 4.31 100 21.59 4.12 13 22.06 4.03 16 23.13 3.85 37 24.01 3.71 41 24.23 3.67 25 25.25 3.53 20 25.52 3.49 23 26.14 3.41 36 26.52 3.36 30 27.10 3.29 12 28.52 3.13 22 29.85 2.99 6 30.24 2.96 2 30.84 2.90 3 31.64 2.83 11 32.44 2.76 5 33.11 2.71 5 34.86 2.57 6 35.63 2.52 14 36.10 2.49 6 .sup.(a).+-.0.15

The X-ray powder diffraction patterns were determined by standard techniques. The radiation was the K-alpha/doublet of copper. The peak heights and the positions, as a function of 2.theta. where .theta. is the Bragg angle, were read from the relative intensities of the peaks, and d, the interplanar spacing in Angstroms corresponding to the recorded lines, can be calculated.

The variation in the scattering angle (two theta) measurements, due to instrument error and to differences between individual samples, is estimated at .+-.0.15 degrees.

The X-ray diffraction pattern of Table I is representative of "as-synthesized" or "as-made" SSZ-71 molecular sieves. Minor variations in the diffraction pattern can result from variations in the silica-to-zinc or silica-to-titanium mole ratio of the particular sample due to changes in lattice constants. In addition, sufficiently small crystals will affect the shape and intensity of peaks, leading to significant peak broadening.

The molecular sieve produced by exchanging the metal or other cations present in the molecular sieve with various other cations (such as H.sup.+ or NH.sub.4.sup.+) yields essentially the same diffraction pattern, although again, there may be minor shifts in the interplanar spacing and variations in the relative intensities of the peaks. Notwithstanding these minor perturbations, the basic crystal lattice remains unchanged by these treatments.

SSZ-71 can be used as-synthesized, but preferably will be thermally treated (calcined). Usually, it is desirable to remove the alkali metal cation by ion exchange and replace it with hydrogen, ammonium, or any desired metal ion. The molecular sieve can also be steamed; steaming helps stabilize the molecular sieve to attack from acids.

The molecular sieve can be used in intimate combination with hydrogenating components, such as tungsten, vanadium, molybdenum, rhenium, nickel, cobalt, chromium, manganese, or a noble metal, such as palladium or platinum, for those applications in which a hydrogenation-dehydrogenation function is desired.

Metals may also be introduced into the molecular sieve by replacing some of the cations in the molecular sieve with metal cations via standard ion exchange techniques (see, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 3140249 issued Jul. 7 1964 to Plank et al.; U.S. Pat. No. 3140251 issued Jul. 7 1964 to Plank et al.; and U.S. Pat. No. 3140253 issued Jul. 7 1964 to Plank et al.). Typical replacing cations can include metal cations, e.g., rare earth, Group IA, Group IIA and Group VIII metals, as well as their mixtures. Of the replacing metallic cations, cations of metals such as rare earth, Mn, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cd, Pt, Pd, Ni, Co, Ti, Al, Sn, and Fe are particularly preferred.

The hydrogen, ammonium, and metal components can be ion-exchanged into the SSZ-71. The SSZ-71 can also be impregnated with the metals, or the metals can be physically and intimately admixed with the SSZ-71 using standard methods known to the art.

Typical ion-exchange techniques involve contacting the synthetic molecular sieve with a solution containing a salt of the desired replacing cation or cations. Although a wide variety of salts can be employed, chlorides and other halides, acetates, nitrates, and sulfates are particularly preferred. The molecular sieve is usually calcined prior to the ion-exchange procedure to remove the organic matter present in the channels and on the surface, since this results in a more effective ion exchange. Representative ion exchange techniques are disclosed in a wide variety of patents including U.S. Pat. No. 3140249 issued on Jul. 7 1964 to Plank et al.; U.S. Pat. No. 3140251 issued on Jul. 7 1964 to Plank et al.; and U.S. Pat. No. 3140253 issued on Jul. 7 1964 to Plank et al.

Following contact with the salt solution of the desired replacing cation, the molecular sieve is typically washed with water and dried at temperatures ranging from 65.degree. C. to about 200.degree. C. After washing, the molecular sieve can be calcined in air or inert gas at temperatures ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. for periods of time ranging from 1 to 48 hours, or more, to produce a catalytically active product especially useful in hydrocarbon conversion processes.

Regardless of the cations present in the synthesized form of SSZ-71 the spatial arrangement of the atoms which form the basic crystal lattice of the molecular sieve remains essentially unchanged.

SSZ-71 can be formed into a wide variety of physical shapes. Generally speaking, the molecular sieve can be in the form of a powder, a granule, or a molded product, such as extrudate having a particle size sufficient to pass through a 2-mesh (Tyler) screen and be retained on a 400-mesh (Tyler) screen. In cases where the catalyst is molded, such as by extrusion with an organic binder, the SSZ-71 can be extruded before drying, or, dried or partially dried and then extruded.

SSZ-71 can be composited with other materials resistant to the temperatures and other conditions employed in organic conversion processes. Such matrix materials include active and inactive materials and synthetic or naturally occurring zeolites as well as inorganic materials such as clays, silica and metal oxides. Examples of such materials and the manner in which they can be used are disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4910006 issued May 20 1990 to Zones et al., and U.S. Pat. No. 5316753 issued May 31 1994 to Nakagawa, both of which are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety.

The partial oxidation of low value hydrocarbons such as alkanes and alkenes into high value products such as alcohols and epoxides is of great commercial interest. These oxidation products are not only valuable as is, but also as intermediates for specialty chemicals including pharmaceuticals and pesticides.

U.S. Pat. No. 4410501 issued Oct. 18 1983 to Esposito et al., discloses a titanium-containing analogue of the all-silica ZSM-5 molecular sieve. This material (known as "TS-1") has been found to be useful in catalyzing a wide range of partial oxidation chemistries, for example the production of catechol and hydroquinone from phenol and hydrogen peroxide (H.sub.2O.sub.2) and the manufacture of propylene oxide and cyclohexanone oxime from propylene and cyclohexanone, respectively. In addition, TS-1 can be used to catalyze the reaction of alkanes and aqueous H.sub.2O.sub.2 to form alcohols and ketones. (See Huybrechts, D. R. C. et al., Nature 1990 345 240 242 and Tatsumi, T. et al., J.C.S. Chem. Commun. 1990 476 477.)

TS-1 has many salient features, other than its catalytic abilities, which make it attractive as a commercial catalyst. Most importantly, it is a solid. This allows for easy separation from the reactants and products (typically liquids) by simple, inexpensive filtration. Moreover, this solid has high thermal stability and a very long lifetime. Calcination in air at moderate temperatures (550.degree. C.) restores the material to its original catalytic ability. TS-1 performs best at mild temperatures (<100.degree. C.) and pressures (1 atm). The oxidant used for reactions catalyzed by TS-1 is aqueous H.sub.2O.sub.2 which is important because aqueous H.sub.2O.sub.2 is relatively inexpensive and its by-product is water. Hence, the choice of oxidant is favorable from both a commercial and environmental point of view.

While a catalyst system based on TS-1 has many useful features, it has one serious drawback. The zeolite structure of TS-1 includes a regular system of pores which are formed by nearly circular rings of ten silicon atoms (called 10-membered rings, or simply "10 rings") creating pore diameters of approximately 5.5 .ANG.. This small size results in the exclusion of molecules larger than 5.5 .ANG.. Because the catalytically active sites are located within the pores of the zeolite, any exclusion of molecules from the pores results in poor catalytic activity.

SSZ-71 containing titanium oxide (Ti-SSZ-71) is useful as a catalyst in oxidation reactions, particularly in the oxidation of hydrocarbons. Examples of such reactions include, but are not limited to, the epoxidation of olefins, the oxidation of alkanes, and the oxidation of sulfur-containing, nitrogen-containing or phosphorus-containing compounds.

The amount of Ti-SSZ-71 catalyst employed is not critical, but should be sufficient so as to substantially accomplish the desired oxidation reaction in a practicably short period of time (i.e., a catalytically effective amount). The optimum quantity of catalyst will depend upon a number of factors including reaction temperature, the reactivity and concentration of the substrate, hydrogen peroxide concentration, type and concentration of organic solvent, as well as the activity of the catalyst. Typically, however, the amount of catalyst will be from about 0.001 to 10 grams per mole of substrate.

Typically, the Ti-SSZ-71 is thermally treated (calcined) prior to use as a catalyst.

The oxidizing agent employed in the oxidation processes of this invention is a hydrogen peroxide source such as hydrogen peroxide (H.sub.2O.sub.2) or a hydrogen peroxide precursor (i.e., a compound which under the oxidation reaction conditions is capable of generating or liberating hydrogen peroxide).

The amount of hydrogen peroxide relative to the amount of substrate is not critical, but must be sufficient to cause oxidation of at least some of the substrate. Typically, the molar ratio of hydrogen peroxide to substrate is from about 100:1 to about 1:100 preferably 10:1 to about 1:10. When the substrate is an olefin containing more than one carbon-carbon double bond, additional hydrogen peroxide may be required. Theoretically, one equivalent of hydrogen peroxide is required to oxidize one equivalent of a mono-unsaturated substrate, but it may be desirable to employ an excess of one reactant to optimize selectivity to the epoxide. In particular, the use of a moderate to large excess (e.g., 50 to 200%) of olefin relative to hydrogen peroxide may be advantageous for certain substrates.

If desired, a solvent may additionally be present during the oxidation reaction in order to dissolve the reactants other than the Ti-SSZ-71 to provide better temperature control, or to favorably influence the oxidation rates and selectivities. The solvent, if present, may comprise from 1 to 99 weight percent of the total oxidation reaction mixture and is preferably selected such that it is a liquid at the oxidation reaction temperature. Organic compounds having boiling points at atmospheric pressure of from about 50.degree. C. to about 150.degree. C. are generally preferred for use. Excess hydrocarbon may serve as a solvent or diluent. Illustrative examples of other suitable solvents include, but are not limited to, ketones (e.g., acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, acetophenone), ethers (e.g., tetrahydrofuran, butyl ether), nitrites (e.g., acetonitrile), aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, and alcohols (e.g., methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, t-butyl alcohol, alpha-methyl benzyl alcohol, cyclohexanol). More than one type of solvent may be utilized. Water may also be employed as a solvent or diluent.

The reaction temperature is not critical, but should be sufficient to accomplish substantial conversion of the substrate within a reasonably short period of time. It is generally advantageous to carry out the reaction to achieve as high a hydrogen peroxide conversion as possible, preferably at least about 50%, more preferably at least about 90%, most preferably at least about 95%, consistent with reasonable selectivities. The optimum reaction temperature will be influenced by catalyst activity, substrate reactivity, reactant concentrations, and type of solvent employed, among other factors, but typically will be in a range of from about 0.degree. C. to about 150.degree. C. (more preferably from about 25.degree. C. to about 120.degree. C.). Reaction or residence times from about one minute to about 48 hours (more desirably from about ten minutes to about eight hours) will typically be appropriate, depending upon the above-identified variables. Although subatmospheric pressures can be employed, the reaction is preferably performed at atmospheric or at elevated pressure (typically, between one and 100 atmospheres), especially when the boiling point of the substrate is below the oxidation reaction temperature. Generally, it is desirable to pressurize the reaction vessel sufficiently to maintain the reaction components as a liquid phase mixture. Most (over 50%) of the substrate should preferably be present in the liquid phase.

The oxidation process of this invention may be carried out in a batch, continuous, or semi-continuous manner using any appropriate type of reaction vessel or apparatus such as a fixed bed, transport bed, fluidized bed, stirred slurry, or CSTR reactor. The reactants may be combined all at once or sequentially. For example, the hydrogen peroxide or hydrogen peroxide precursor may be added incrementally to the reaction zone. The hydrogen peroxide could also be generated in situ within the same reactor zone where oxidation is taking place.

Once the oxidation has been carried out to the desired degree of conversion, the oxidized product may be separated and recovered from the reaction mixture using any appropriate technique such as fractional distillation, extractive distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, crystallization, or the like.

Olefin Epoxidation

One of the oxidation reactions for which Ti-SSZ-71 is useful as a catalyst is the epoxidation of olefins. The olefin substrate epoxidized in the process of this invention may be any organic compound having at least one ethylenically unsaturated functional group (i.e., a carbon-carbon double bond) and may be a cyclic, branched or straight-chain olefin. The olefin may contain aryl groups (e.g., phenyl, naphthyl). Preferably, the olefin is aliphatic in character and contains from 2 to about 20 carbon atoms. The use of light (low-boiling) C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 mono-olefins is especially advantageous.

More than one carbon-carbon double bond may be present in the olefin, i.e., dienes, trienes and other polyunsaturated substrates may be used. The double bond may be in a terminal or internal position in the olefin or may alternatively form part of a cyclic structure (as in cyclooctene, for example).

Other examples of suitable substrates include unsaturated fatty acids or fatty acid derivatives such as esters.

The olefin may contain substituents other than hydrocarbon substituents such as halide, carboxylic acid, ether, hydroxy, thiol, nitro, cyano, ketone, acyl, ester, anhydride, amino, and the like.

Exemplary olefins suitable for use in the process of this invention include ethylene, propylene, the butenes (i.e., 12-butene, 23-butene, isobutylene), butadiene, the pentenes, isoprene, 1-hexene, 3-hexene, 1-heptene, 1-octene, diisobutylene, 1-nonene, 1-tetradecene, pentamyrcene, camphene, 1-undecene, 1-dodecene, 1-tridecene, 1-tetradecene, 1-pentadecene, 1-hexadecene, 1-heptadecene, 1-octadecene, 1-nonadecene, 1-eicosene, the trimers and tetramers of propylene, cyclopentene, cyclohexene, cycloheptene, cyclooctene, cyclooctadiene, dicyclopentadiene, methylenecyclopropane, methylenecyclopentane, methylenecyclohexane, vinyl cyclohexane, vinyl cyclohexene, methallyl ketone, allyl chloride, the dichlorobutenes, allyl alcohol, allyl carbonate, allyl acetate, alkyl acrylates and methacrylates, diallyl maleate, diallyl phthalate, and unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic acid, linolenic acid, linoleic acid, erucic acid, palmitoleic acid, and ricinoleic acid and their esters (including mono-, di-, and triglyceride esters) and the like.

Olefins which are especially useful for epoxidation are the C.sub.2 C.sub.20 olefins having the general structure R.sup.3R.sup.4C=CR.sup.5R.sup.6 wherein R.sup.3 R.sup.4 R.sup.5 and R.sup.6 are the same or different and are selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and C.sub.1 C.sub.18 alkyl.

Mixtures of olefins may be epoxidized and the resulting mixtures of epoxides either employed in the mixed form or separated into the different component epoxides.

The present invention further provides a process for oxidation of hydrocarbons comprising contacting said hydrocarbon with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of Ti-SSZ-71 for a time and at a temperature effective to oxidize said hydrocarbon.


Chabazite-containing molecular sieve, its synthesis and its use in the conversion of oxygenates to olefins
Synthesis of molecular sieve catalysts
Process for synthesis of high-silica silicate molecular sieve
Inorganic composite membrane comprising molecular sieve crystals
Lithium-aluminum-phosphorus-silicon-oxide molecular sieve compositions
Molecular sieve type gas separation systems
Molecular sieve layers and processes for their manufacture
Process for production of molecular sieve adsorbent blends
Molecular sieve compositions, catalyst thereof, their making and use in conversion processes

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