Water filter abstract
A portable water filter for household use is disclosed, comprising
a pair of releasably connected, upper and lower sections. A water
faucet is connected by a line having a severe flow restriction to
the lower section for discharge into the bottom thereof. The two
sections are connected by a threaded collar having an integral wall
separating the two sections with aperture means at its center for
upward flow of water from the lower to the upper section. Each section
contains two filtering materials, one of which in each section is
a plurality of nested, cup-shaped, paper filter elements sealed
by a mating ring to the interior surface of the respective section.
The walls of the sections are transparent to permit viewing of the
filter materials, thereby visually indicating the need for filter
replacement by the degree of discoloration thereof.
Water filter claims
What is claimed is:
1. A water filter system for attachment to a faucet from which
water is supplied at a first pressure, said filter system comprising:
(a) at least two interconnected, enclosed sections arranged vertically
to provide upper and lower sections;
(b) a line arranged to receive water from said faucet and to discharge
through an end portion arranged within said lower section near the
(c) flow restricting means arranged between said faucet and said
end portion of said line to reduce the water pressure from said
first pressure at said faucet to a second pressure when discharged
into said lower section;
(d) first and second filter materials arranged within said lower
and upper sections, respectively, for removing or reducing particulate
matter or other foreign substances or contaminants from water flowing
therethrough, each of said first and second filter materials comprising
a plurality of nested, cup-shaped, paper filter elements;
(e) an impermeable wall separating said lower and upper sections;
(f) aperture means through which water may flow from said lower
to said upper section; and
(g) means adjacent the top of said upper section through which
water exits said filter system after passing through said first
and second filter means.
2. The invention according to claim 1 wherein said lower and upper
sections are cylindrical in shape and of equal diameter.
3. The invention according to claim 2 wherein said lower and upper
sections are interconnected by a threaded collar encircling adjacent
portions of said sections.
4. The invention according to claim 3 wherein said impermeable
wall is formed integrally with said collar.
5. The invention according to claim 4 wherein said aperture means
are substantially centrally disposed in said wall.
6. The invention according to claim 1 and further including means
for sealing said filter elements about the periphery thereof to
the interior surfaces of said upper and lower sections to insure
that all water flowing through said sections passes through said
7. The invention according to claim 6 wherein said sealing means
comprise a pair of rings, one disposed within each of said sections,
and dimensioned to fit within said sections with the peripheries
of said filter elements tightly engaged between said rings and the
interior surfaces of said sections.
8. The invention according to claim 7 wherein each of said first
and second filter materials include a filter material in addition
to and distinct from said paper filter elements.
9. The invention according to claim 1 wherein said line comprises
a length of flexible tubing connected at one end to receive water
from said faucet, and said flow restricting means comprises an orifice
positioned adjacent said one end.
10. The invention according to claim 1 wherein said upper and lower
sections are of transparent material to permit direct viewing of
said white-like filter material, thereby providing a visual indication
of the need for replacement of said filter material by the degree
of discoloration thereof.
Water filter description
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to water filtering apparatus, and
more specifically to a water filter system for attachment to a household
faucet, or the like, for filtering water at a relatively slow rate.
The prior art includes a number of forms of filtering apparatus
intended for connection to a household water faucet to remove impurities
and foreign matter. Systems of this type often operate at line pressure
to obtain a flow rate out of the filter approximately equal to that
which would come out of the faucet at such pressure. In systems
of the reverse osmosis type, water under no appreciable pressure
migrates through a layer of filter material. In general, there is
a trade-off between filtering efficiency, i.e., the degree of purity
of the filtered water, and the rate of flow out of the filtering
It is a principal object of the present invention to provide a
water filtering system which has a high filtering efficiency, for
connection to a household faucet but operates under positive pressure
to provide filtered water at an acceptable flow rate.
A further object is to provide low cost water filtering apparatus
for household use which is simple in operation and construction,
permitting fast and easy installation, as well as replacement of
inexpensive, expandable filter material.
Another object is to provide apparatus for filtering household
tap water wherein expendable filter material is directly visible
to indicate visually the need for replacement thereof.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The filtering system of the invention includes a pair of cylindrical
sections which are detachably connected in vertical relation to
provide an upper and a lower section. A line connected at one end
to a household water faucet discharges at the opposite end through
a plurality of openings arranged near the bottom of the lower section.
A severe flow restriction in this line reduces the pressure of the
water entering the lower section of the filter apparatus to a fraction
of the line pressure at the faucet, e.g., 10% or less.
The lower and upper sections are preferably connected by a threaded
collar and are separated by an impermeable wall, which may be formed
integrally with the collar. Water passes upwardly from the lower
to the upper section through aperture means in the wall, preferably
at the center. Both the lower and the upper sections have dual filtering
means, e.g., a layer of material such as activated carbon and multiple
layers of paper filters. Retaining rings are provided to engage
the paper filters tightly with the inner surfaces of the lower and
upper sections. Filtered water exits the filter apparatus through
an opening in the top of the upper section.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING
FIG. 1 is a front elevational view of the filter apparatus in vertical
section, shown with a faucet from which water is supplied, with
an adapter for connecting the faucet to the filter apparatus; and
FIG. 2 is an exploded perspective view of the filter apparatus.
Referring now to the drawing, in FIG. 1 is shown a fragment of
a conventional, household, water faucet 10. Connected to the outlet
of faucet 10 by threaded or friction fit coupling 12 is a Y-shaped
fitting having branches 14 and 16 and a valve with manually positionable
control knob 18. An arrow or other such indicia on control knob
18 indicates the position of the valve, e.g., in the position shown
in FIG. 1 the valve is positioned for flow of water from faucet
10 through branch 14. Turning knob 18 45.degree. in a clockwise
direction will position the valve to block all flow from the faucet,
and turning it 90.degree. will permit flow from the faucet through
Branch 14 of the fitting is connected by a suitable length of flexible
tubing 20 preferably of rubber or plastic, is connected at one
end to nipple 22 extending from branch 14 and at the other end
to nipple 24 extending outwardly from the lower end of the filtering
apparatus, indicated generally by reference numeral 26. If desired,
the nipples may be of the barbed type to provide more secure connections
for the ends of tubing 20. Small orifice 27 provides a severe restriction,
e.g., on the order of 90% to 95%, in the flow of water from faucet
10 through tubing 20 and consequently a low pressure within apparatus
Filter apparatus 26 includes lower section 28 having closure wall
30 on the bottom, and upper section 32 having closure wall 34 on
the top. Sections 28 and 32 are illustrated as cylindrical in shape,
but may be of other configurations so long as they may be interconnected
with one above the other. For purposes of interconnection, lower
and upper sections 28 and 32 are externally threaded at their upper
and lower ends, respectively, as indicated at 36 and 38 in FIG.
2. Nipple 24 extends through the side wall of lower section 28 and
is integrally connected to tube 40 having a plurality of openings
42 arranged within section 28 adjacent to bottom wall 30 thereof.
Immediately above tube 40 in lower section 28 is a quantity of
a first filtering material 44 preferably activated carbon, or the
like, extending completely across the interior of section 28 so
that all water which enters through tube 40 must pass upwardly through
material 44. Second filtering material 46 is arranged within section
28 above material 44. In the preferred embodiment, material 46 is
comprised of a plurality of layers of conventional paper filtering
material such as the filters commonly used in drip coffee makers.
For example, about six such filters may be utilized in the nested,
cup-shaped configuration in which they may be commercially obtained,
to provide filtering material 46. Ring 48 having crossed reinforcing
members 50 has a diameter such that it may be pressed into the
open, upper end of section 28 with the peripheral edges of the filters
which form material 46 frictionally engaged between the ring and
the inside surface of section 28. This forms an effective seal,
insuring that all water which flows upwardly within section 28 passes
through filter material 46 and does not seep around the edges thereof.
A second or more ring sets of filters may be inserted over the first
ring set of filters.
Lower and upper sections 28 and 32 are interconnected by threaded
collar 52 and separated by impermeable wall 54 which may be integrally
formed with the collar. Short, tubelike member 56 passes through
the central portion of wall 54 to extend outwardly on each side
thereof. Member 56 is closed on both ends and includes openings
58 and 60 in its side wall on opposite sides of wall 54.
A pair of filtering materials are also disposed within upper section
32. The first of such materials, indicated by reference numeral
62 is preferably a mass of loosely packed synthetic or natural
fibers, in the nature of a floss, or other bulk material useful
in liquid filtration. The second filter material 64 in upper section
32 may be the same type of nested paper filters used in lower section
28 and are likewise retained in position and sealed about their
periphery by ring 66 having crossed reinforcing members 68. Rings
48 and 66 and/or the side walls of sections 28 and 32 may be tapered
slightly to accommodate more easily the frictional fit of the rings
within the sections, with the edges of the paper filters engaged
From the foregoing it may be seen that when faucet 10 is open and
control knob 18 is positioned to direct flow through branch 14
water will enter lower section 28 of filter apparatus 26 being
distributed along the lower side thereof by tube 40 after having
been considerably reduced in pressure by flow restriction 27. As
apparatus 26 fills, water flows upwardly in lower section 28 through
first and second filter materials 44 and 46 and thence through
openings 58 and 60 into upper section 32. As the water continues
to flow upwardly within section 32 it passes through the first and
second filter materials 62 and 64 of this section, and exits apparatus
26 through opening 70 in top wall 34 communicating with conduit
72 which is connected by suitable tubing to reservoir means (not
shown) for collecting the filtered water.
Changes may be made in the filtering system as illustrated and
described without departing from the scope of the invention. For
example, orifice 27 which essentially maintains the line pressure
therein, may be positioned other than in nipple 22 which may be
threaded, but is between faucet 10 and tube 40 to provide an low
water pressure within and relatively slow flow rate through apparatus
26. Control of the flow rate could in most cases be controlled simply
by opening the faucet valve to only a slight degree, but it is preferred
that no such control requirements be placed upon the user of the
system, permitting the faucet to be opened up to the maximum extent
and the line pressure reduced by the flow restriction. The pressure
within apparatus 26 when in operation is obviously lower than in
the main line pressure if outlet diameters of inlet and outlets
in the apparatus exceed the orifice 27 diameter.
Since the only intended use of the filtered water is for drinking
and, if desired, cooking purposes, it is advisable to collect only
that amount of filtered water as is anticipated to be needed over
a short period of time. Although the flow rate through the filter
apparatus is relatively slow, the supply may be used fresh directly
collected or accumulated in clean containers such as stoppered jugs.
Elements of the system may be fabricated from relatively cheap
materials, such as molded plastics. It is preferred that at least
lower and upper sections 28 and 32 be of transparent material to
permit direct viewing of the filtering materials therein, thus providing
a visual indication of the need for replacement of such materials
in accordance with the degree of discoloration thereof due to collected
impurities removed from the water.
Prior to first use of the apparatus and after replacement of filtering
materials, it is advisable by use of the hot water faucet to hot
water flush for several minutes or to introduce into tube 20 when
disconnected the recommended amount of an approved chemical sanitizer
followed by flushing.